Global environmental issues
Climate refers to the usual weather of a place. The climate differs from season to season, from region to region. A combination of all the climates in the world is called the Earth's climate.
Climate change refers to a change or changes in the usual weather conditions found in a place or region. Changes could be felt in the precipitation or snowfall regime, temperature, etc. Climate change is also a change in the Earth's climate.
Climate change is now a much discussed concept around the world. It is because it is now experienced that the global temperature is increasing during these years. The global average surface temperature is believed to have increased by 0.6 ° + 0.2 ° C over the past century. Overall, 1998 was the hottest year and the 90's was the hottest decade on record.
Many countries have experienced an increase in rainfall, especially in those in mid and high latitudes. In some regions, such as parts of Asia and Africa, the frequency and The intensity of droughts have increased in recent decades.
The El Nino episodes, which create large storms, have been more frequent and persistent. and intense since the mid-1970s compared to the previous 100 years. All of these signs show that the Earth's climate is changing, making it more difficult for humanity to survive.
Causes of climate change
The climate changes by itself in nature. The distance between Earth and the sun, large-scale volcanic eruptions, heavy rains during ulonger period, are examples of natural phenomena that influence the Earth's climate. These are natural and have nothing to do with our current concern about climate change.
What concerns us today is the increase in global temperature, in particular. Most scientists say that human activities have caused certain changes in the earth's natural climate.
Most scientists agree that the main cause of current global warming is the human expansion of the "greenhouse effect". The greenhouse effect is the increase in the number of certain gases which include carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, nitrous oxide (N 2 O), water vapor, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), etc.
Greenhouse gases are produced naturally and trap heat in the earth's atmosphere like a blanket. Whenthe concentration of these gases in the atmosphere is increased, mainly by burning fossil fuels, there is a proportional increase in the temperature of the earth's atmosphere. It is called global warming .
The main anthropogenic factors responsible for climate change are -
Exponential growth of the human population.
Massive and unplanned urbanization and industrialization over the last century.
Burning of fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas on a large scale to meet the growing energy needs of the world's burgeoning population.
Lifestyle change and massive increase in the number of machines, gadgets, etc.
Impact of climate change on the human environment
It is now clear that climate change causes alterationsunwanted ions from natural systems. The environmental consequences of climate change are extreme heat waves, sea level rise, changes in precipitation leading to floods and droughts, intense hurricanes and degraded air quality.
The above phenomenal changes directly and indirectly affect the physical, social and psychological health of human beings.
Frequency of weather disasters
Changes in precipitation lead to changes in the availability and quantity of water and also lead to extreme weather events, such as like intense storms, floods and droughts. The frequency of all these meteorological phenomena sometimes leads to human causes ity in great proportion apart from the enormous losses of property, mainly in developing and underdeveloped countries.
Climate change affects human health prerequisites such as air and water quality, sufficient and healthy food, natural stresses to disease agents infectious diseases and the adequacy and security of shelters.
The report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health highlights that disadvantaged communities are likely to bear a disproportionate share of the burden of climate change due to their exposure and increased vulnerability to health threats.
Large-scale displacement of people
Effects of climate change such as desertification, sea level rise and severity of weather-related disasters. with the spread of epidemics can destroy or affect human dwellings, causing people to seek shelter elsewhere.
The deterioration of theenvironment and resource depletion can lead to human conflict at all levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has estimated that there will be more than 150 million environmental migrants by 2050 and the number will be confusing due to the complexity of the problem and lack of data.
Apart from the above, here are some other consequences of climate change -
Changing the hydrological cycle and the 'water supply
The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) may move northward in the northern hemisphere, causing rapid changes in precipitation pattern
Increase in tropical and temperate cyclones, cloud cover, tornadoes and storms
Changes in pressure and pressure belts atmospheric circulation
Heats it upment of seawater can endanger corals around the world
Expansion of deserts and more desertification in deserts
Effect on food supply and international grain trade
National parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves may be changed
Countries such as the Maldives and more of the Netherlands, etc. can submerge under water
Climate change is making food crops less nutritious. Increased carbon dioxide emissions lead to iron and zinc deficiencies in food crops
The explosion of the population and its pressure on the 'environment
Most resources being limited from the very beginning and the natural limit of resource production being slow, the constant increase in the number of people on tWandering puts excessive pressure on the world's resources.
Population growth and the resulting increase in human population the settlements over the past two centuries have taken away a considerable part of the natural vegetation, cultivable land and especially the natural habitats of wild animals. There has been a loss of biodiversity and a resulting ecological imbalance in gravity these days.
More people, more demand, more waste
With the advent of science and technology, man needs comfort and luxury. 'is multiplied several times. This required the production of a large number of goods and services in the world.
Not only the huge population (7.4 billion in 2016), but also the way of life, modern day consumption patterns directly affect the environment. More people demand more resources and generate more waste. It isIt is clear that one of the challenges of a growing population is that the mere presence of so many people sharing a limited number of resources weighs on the environment.
Rapid urbanization and industrialization
Rapid urbanization and industrialization during the last century, in most parts of the world, has not only destroyed a substantial part of the natural vegetation, but has also forced many wild animals to the brink of extinction.
Besides the pressure on resources due to high population growth, technological and scientific innovations, rapid increase in automobile population, electronic gadgets, machinery and equipment have added a great number of pollutants to the environment. As a result, environmental degradation has reached an irremediable level.
Developed countries where consumption levels are high add more to pollution thanThe other countries. A child born in a country with high levels of material and energy consumption places a greater burden on the earth's resources than a child born in a poorer country.
Nevertheless, sustainable development can be pursued more easily when the size of the population is stabilized at a level compatible with the productive capacity of the ecosystem.
Consumption, although necessary for the economy, can be dangerous for the environment. Consumerism is a social and economic order that supports and encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever increasing quantities.
Man has developed an unprecedented craze for an increasing number of products and services available on the world market. This has been made worse by improved marketing strategies, engaging advertisements and user-friendly services offered by businesses.and points of sale.
About 2 billion people belonging to the "consumer class" are characterized by the desire for processed foods for larger homes, cars, durable goods, etc. in order to maintain the desired lifestyle.
Consumerism has become more acute in developing countries like India and China than in developed countries due to the increase in population in the former.
Reasons for crazy consumerism
Growing materialist tendency in modern man
Easy access to markets thanks to faster development of transport and communication
Effective marketing and advertising strategies
Increased income levels in most parts of the world
Globalization and liberalization
Increase quick ways to generate income
Greed to own more and more
Impact of mad consumption
Increased con Sumerism has led to excessive production of goods and services, which in turn has led to enormous pressure on the natural environment and natural resources. Resource depletion, environmental degradation and pollution are now on the agenda. Mankind has reached the peak of environmental pollution from which it seems very difficult to return. The race for comfort and luxury has disproportionately stained the environment.
Excessive demand for consumer products has created most of the current environmental imbalances and these imbalances have already caused ecological catastrophe in different parts of the world.
Consumerism has resulted in piles of garbage in urban areas and also in rural areas which lead to environmental pollution. The addictThe increase in electronic waste around the world, especially in developed countries, is further damaging to the environment. The popularity of plastic for various purposes greatly increases the pollution of air, water and soil.