Policy and legislation
Environmental studies tutorial
Policy and legislation
In the previous chapters we have learned about the environment, ecosystem and natural resources, biodiversity and its importance for the living world, especially for humanity. We also learned how environmental issues such as pollution and climate change affect and threaten our survival. It is necessary to know the legal and constitutional provisions to protect and maintain nature. In this chapter, we will learn more about these provisions and acts.
Need for policies and laws
It has always been the desire of man for clean air, clean water and environment without toxins and pollutants. In the first half of the last century, few legal and constitutional mechanisms were in place to protect a country's environment and natural resources.
The increasing pollution and theGrowing pressure on the quality of air, water and land has led to the adoption of environmental laws designed to protect the environment from harmful actions. Due to the current state of the environment, decision-makers in every country must give top priority to environmental policy.
Natural resources, renewable and non-renewable, and wildlife are under constant threat. It is estimated that given the current rate of exploitation of these resources, we will be bereft of many important resources in the near future. Unless we take care of them and use them sustainably, we will support our posterity without resources. Therefore, environmental policies and legislation are needed.
What is an environmental policy?
Policy refers to a set of principles or plans agreed to by a government or organizationtion to be performed in a particular situation. environmental policy is defined as "any action taken deliberately to manage human activities with a view to preventing, reducing or mitigating harmful effects on nature and natural resources, and ensuring that changes made by humans to the environment do not have harmful effects on humans or the environment ".
Environmental policy generally covers air and water pollution, waste management, ecosystem management, protection of biodiversity and protection of natural resources, fauna and endangered species. Appropriate policies and legislation at the national and international levels can reduce poisonous pollution and help protect biodiversity and natural resources.
What is environmental legislation?
Environmental legislation is a setble of laws and regulations that aim to protect the environment from harmful actions.
Legislation can take many forms, including regulating emissions that can lead to environmental pollution, environmental and health-damaging taxation, and establishing the legal framework for trading systems, eg carbon emissions. Other actions may be based on voluntary agreements. Among the current main legislative frameworks are those relating to environmental permits and those requiring environmental and health impact studies.
Environmental Protection Law
Most countries in the world have passed environmental protection laws considering the need to protect our environment.
In the United States, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1970 promotes environmental improvement and established thee President 's Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). It is known as the "Environmental Magna Carta" in the United States because it was a first step in the development of United States environmental policy. The other environmental laws in the United States are as follows.
- Clean Air Act of 1970 and 1990
- Clean Water Act of 1972
- Species in danger
- Resource Conservation and Restoration Act 1976
- National Forest Management Act 1976
- Control and Release Act 1977 in open-pit mining condition
- Intervention, Compensation and Global Environmental Liability Act 1980
Environmental Protection Laws in India
In the Indian Constitution, it is clearly stated that it is the duty of the state to `` protect and improve the environment and safeguard theests and wildlife of the country '. It imposes on every citizen the duty "to protect and improve the natural environment, including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife."
There are a number of environmental laws enacted in India. Some of the important laws in this regard are:
- Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
- Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
- Water (Pollution Prevention and Control) Act, 1974
- Air (Pollution Prevention and Control) Act, 1981
- environmental protection, 1986
- Rules for the treatment and management of hazardous waste, 1989
- Law on the National Environmental Court, 1995
Environment Environmental Protection Act 1986
The Environmental Protection Act 1986 'environment is a statutory response which has entered into forcea year after the tragic Bhopal gas tragedy and is considered a framework law as it fills many loopholes in existing environmental laws. It was adopted in accordance with the spirit of the Stockholm Conference held in June 1972 to take appropriate measures for the protection and revitalization of the environment and related matters.
The Environmental Protection Act is applicable to the whole of India, including Jammu and Kashmir. It entered into force on November 19, 1986. The EPA 1986 was promulgated largely to implement decisions taken at the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in June 1972.
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Much has been doneto protect and improve the environment around the world. However, much remains to be done to build a sustainable society. New mechanisms are being put in place to speed up the process of protecting and improving the environment. For example, new institutions - National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) and National Environmental Management Authorities (SEMA) - in India have been proposed as full time technical organizations with the capacity to process all environmental clearance applications within a limited time frame.