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Chipset northbridge and southbridge, PCH, FCH: role and definition

Hardware and hardware   2020-12-21 19:40:01

The chipset is a set of electronic components of an electronic circuit which is often unrecognized. Yet we find this component in the Most electronic devices like computers, cell phones, game consoles. On a PC, the motherboard has a chipset which fulfills particular functions. This article suggests you understand the role of the chipset and gives you some definitions regarding this chip. Table of contents 1 Introduction 2 What is the chipset 3 Chipset NorthBridge, SouthBridge and FSB 4 Single chipset in Intel"s Platform Controller Hub (PCH) 5 The Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) 6 The important role of the chipset 7 The PCI-E internal bus chipset and memory 7.1 PCI-Express 7.2 RAM memory 8 Links 9 Introduction In a PC, there are many components Processor, graphics card, memory, expansion card keyboard, etc which must communicate with each other or towards the processor. For this, these peripherals and components can have a BUS. That is to say a dedicated circuit which allows the exchange of data. System components and peripherals - CPU, RAM, expansion cards, printers, etc. - connect to the motherboard via "buses". Each motherboard contains several different bus types , which can vary in terms of speed and bandwidth , but for the sake of simplicity we can external buses (including USB, serial and parallel) and internal buses . But how to regulate this traffic and data exchange? This is where the chipset comes in. What is chipset The chipset is an important chip that can be found on the motherboard or the graphics card. This chip manages the exchange of information ebetween different components such as the processor , the computer memory , graphics card and other peripherals (USB, hard drive, etc.). A chipset acts as the communication center and the traffic controller of motherboard, and it ultimately determines which components are compatible with the motherboard, including processor, RAM, hard drives, and graphics cards. It also dictates your future expansion options and in what If so, your system may be overclocked. In the case of a PC"s chipset, the latter is on the motherboard. Finding this chip is quite easy on the motherboard because it is quite large. Actually on a motherboard , there are two electronic chips that make up the chipset. For a general overview of the components of"a computer, follow this link: Components and running a computer Chipset NorthBridge, SouthBridge and FSB In older PCs, the chipset is broken down into two main components: The NorthBridge and SouthBridge . We can translate that from the north bridge and the south bridge and which each manages the exchanges of information with the different components of the computer. The north bridge (northbridge MCH) or principle bus or bus system manages the exchanges of information with the fast components of the PC like the processor, the RAM memory and the various peripherals on the ports PCI Express, AGPC. This north bridge has the system bus (or Front Side BUS [FSB] ) which allows these exchanges. The FSB is gradually being replaced by the Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) . Finally, the North Bridge is directly connected to the processor and therefore is located next to the latter. The south bridge (southbridge ICH) is slower than the north bridge and manages information which is not processed by the northern pond. Slower peripherals are handled by the latter such as the PS / 2 keyboard or mouse, ethernet cards, serial and parallel ports, etc. The south bridge is not directly connected to the processor. source https: //fr.wikipedia. org / wiki / Front_side_bus Finally"an example of the locations of the two South Bride and North Bridge chips on the motherboard . The North Bridge is always at the top of the map while the South Bridge at the bottom. Finally the North Bridge chipset chip is bigger. The Fast PCI-Express ports were connected to the NorthBride chipset. The slower PCI-E ports to the SouthBridge. Chipset single in Platform Controller Hub ( PCH ) d"Intel Intel has been offering another architecture for a few years called Platform Controller Hub ( PCH ). The two chipsets are replaced by a single chipset sa id to Platform Controller Hub ( PCH ) Part of the northbridge MCH is integrated into the processor. Thus in modern PCs, very fast peripherals such as the graphics card or the SSD are connected directly to the processor. So the slot and port PCI-express the fastest has a BUS connected directly to the processor (CPU). Slower devices like the card Ethernet , WiFi , Audio or SATA interface have a BUS connected to the chipset. This is the southbridge part. Finally the PCH is then connected to the CPU via something called Direct Media Interface , or DMI. DMI is actually not a new innovation and has been the traditional way to linknorthbridge to southbridge on Intel systems since 2004. AMD chipsets are not that different, l"former Southbridge now nicknamed the Fusion Controller Hub, or FCH . The CPU and FCH on AMD systems are then connected to each other through theUnified Media Interface or UMI. It"s basically the same architecture as Intel"s, but with different names. The Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) The Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) is the next generation of chipset which replaces the FSB. The QPI is an Intel technology, its equivalent at AMD and Nvidia is HyperTransport. The main difference with the FSB is that the bus is no longer shared, in particular the processor and the memory have their own Buses to communicate directly. The northbridge becomes the IOH (I / O Hubs) and the Sudbridge the ICH I / O Controller Hub (ICH). Here is a typical diagram of the operation of the Quick Path Interconnect (QPI). The important role of the chipset The chipset therefore has an important role on a PC since it takes care of exchanges data . Without chipset, no information between the different components of the computer can be done. For example, the processor will not be able to access the RAM memory which stores information useful for performing calculations. So if you have a newer and fast processor and an old motherboard. If the motherboard chipset is slower than the processor, the latter will be restricted since information exchanges will not be able to go at the maximum speed of the processor. When we talk about chipset, we generally reduce it to the north bridge and the FSB or QPI. The FSB speed is displayed in Ghz as the processor which corresponds to the flightume of data processed in 1 second. But also to the width of the Bus, ie the volume of data that can be transmitted simultaneously. This width is defined in bits: 32-bits, 64-bits, etc. By multiplying these speeds, it is possible to calculate the bit rate in bytes, for example of 8 GT /s. The FSB being older, it does not reach the GT / s unlike the QPI which easily exceeds it. Below is a table of the Intel series chipset 300 with data transmission speeds. When you choose a motherboard, you must therefore check the type of chipset to know the speed of the latter. The PCI-E internal bus and memory chipset When you choose a motherboard , you must in particular check the chipset which composes it. Indeed, it dictates several elements like: The type and frequency of RAM memory supported The number of PCI-e available with the generation and lanes This makes sure that the chipset is powerful enough compared to the processor and RAM memory you are targeting. PCI -Express The main internal bus l of modern motherboards is known as PCI Express (PCIe) . PCIe uses "lanes," which allow internal components such as the RAM and expansion cards communicate with the processor and vice versa. A channel simply consists of two pairs of wired connections: one pair sends data, the other receives data. So a 1x PCIe lane will consist of four wires, 2x has eight, and so on. The more threads, the more data can be exchanged. A 1x connection can handle 250MB in each direction, 2x can handle 512MB, etc. What is PCI Express (PCIe / PCI-E) The number of available lanes depends on the number of lanes of the motherboard itself, as well as the bandwidth capacity (number of lanes) that the processor can provide. Depending on the motherboard and chipset, you will therefore not have the same number of slots PCI-E, generations and vgeese. RAM memory The Chipset can handle a certain type of memory, with frequency and speed. So if you choose a memory with a higher frequency than the chipset can handle, it will not run at full power. RAM memory characteristics: DDR3, DDR4, frequencies, latencies, ECC, XMP The following table lists the chipsets by type of processor and RAM memory. Memory type Memory frequency AMD Chipset Intel Chipset PC4-21300 / PC4-22400 / PC4-24000 from 2666Mhz to 3000Mhz AMD B350 / B450 (except for PC-22400) AMD X399 AMD A320 Intel Z270 Intel Z370/ Z390 Intel X299 Express PC4-22400 2933 Mhz B350 / X370and B450 / X470 AMD X399 AMD A320 Intel Z270 Intel X299 Express PC4 -24000 / PC4-25600 / PC4-27200 3000 Mhz to 3466 Mhz B350 / X370and B450 / X470 AMD X399 AMD A320 (up to 3200) Intel Z370and Z390 Intel Z270 Intel X299 Express PC4-28800 3600 Mhz AMD X399 Intel Z370and Z390 Intel Z270 Express Intel X299 Express PC4-32000 4000 Mhz Intel X299 Express PC4-34100 4266 Mhz Intel X299 Express PC4-35200 4400 Mhz Intel X299 Express PC4-36000 4500Mhz Intel X299 Express PC4-36800 4600 Mhz Intel X299 Express Links Some links around the hardware configuration and the purchase of a new computer. Components and operation of a computer Characteristics and operation of a computer"s processors The different types of memory on Windows and computer How to choose a graphics card: characteristics and advice How to choose your desktop or laptop computer Folder Hardware and Hardware Components of a PC - Access the other articles in this folder: Motherboard: definition, components and how to choose them What is PCI Express (PCIe / PCI-E) You found this article useful and interesting, please share it ... This article is Creative Commons BY- licenseNC-SA. You are authorized to share and modify this article, provided that you credit the site and the license, use the same licenseif you modify the work and do not not for commercial use. Chipset northbridge and southbridge, PCH, FCH: role and definition Follow these articles from the forum to find an answer: Otherwise create your own request for free help. More details: How to get help on the forum