The knowledge management cycle is a process of transforming information into knowledge within an organization. It explains how knowledge is captured, processed and distributed in an organization. In this chapter, we will discuss the main knowledge management cycle models.
So far, four models have been selected based on their ability to meet increasing demands. The four models are the Zack, from Meyer and Zack (1996), the Bukowitz and Williams (2000), the McElroy (2003) and the Wiig (1993) cycles KM.
| Zack || Bukowitz & Williams || WIIG || McElroy |
| Acquisition || Get || Creation || Learning |
| Refinement || Use || Sourcing || Validation |
| Store || Learn || Compilation || Acquisition |
| Distribution || Contribute || Transformation || Integration |
| Overview || Evaluate || Application || Completion |
Zack Knowledge Management Model
The Zack Model is taken from work on the design and development of information products. In Meyer and Zack's approach, the network between each step is designed to be logical and standardized.
In this cycle, the main stages of developing a knowledge repository are analyzed and mapped to the stages of a KM cycle.
The stages are acquisition, refinement, storage / retrieval, distribution and presentation / use. This cycle is also known as "refinement".
Acquisition of data or information
Acquisition deals with problems related to the origin ofs raw materials such as scope, breadth, depth, credibility, accuracy, timeliness, relevance, cost, control and exclusivity.
The guiding principle is the well-known proverb of "garbage in, garbage out". In other words, the highest quality source data is required, otherwise the intel Common products produced downstream will be inferior.
Refinement can be physical (such as migrating from one medium to another) or logical (such as restructuring, relabeling, indexing and l ' 'integration.)
Refining defines also cleaning (such as disinfection of content to ensure complete anonymity of sources and key actors involved) or standardization (such as conformance to best practice models or lessons learned used within this organization particular).
This step also adds value by creating knowledge objects that are more easily usedbles and storing content more flexibly for future use.
Storage / Retrieval
Storage or retrieval forms a bridge between the upstream stages of addition and refinement that feed the storage and the downstream stages of product generation. Storage can be both physical (file folders, printed information) and digital (database, knowledge management software).
Distribution defines how the product is to be delivered to the end-user (such as fax, print, e-mail) and includes not only the means of delivery , but also its timing, frequency, form, language, etc.
Context plays an important role in the presentation or application stage. The performance of each of the previous value-added steps is evaluated here - for example, does the user have enough contextto be able to use this content? Otherwise, the KM cycle has failed to deliver value to the individual and ultimately to the business.
The combined repository and "refinery" enable the management of a company's valuable knowledge. In this cycle, there is also the impression of having to continually renew the storage and refinery in order to avoid disposal.
The Meyer and Zack model is one of the most comprehensive pictures of the key elements engaged in the knowledge management model. To be precise, the notion of refinement is a crucial step in the KM cycle and one that is often overlooked.
Bukowitz & Williams Model
Bukowitz and Williams describe a knowledge management process framework that describes "how organizations generate, maintain and extend a strategically correct store of knowledge to create value".
In this context, knowledge includes referentials of knowledge, relationships, information technologies, communication infrastructure, functional skills, process-how knowledge, environmental responsiveness, organizational intelligence and external sources.
These steps are aimed at longer term processes of adaptation of intellectual capital to strategic needs.
Get Stage is the first step, it consists in finding the information necessary for make decisions, solve problems, or innovate.
Use stage is the next step and deals with how to combine information in new and interesting ways to drive organizational innovation. The focus is primarily on individuals, then groups.
The Learning Phase highlights the formal process of learning from experiences as a means of creating Gain.Business insight is important because it serves as the transitional stage between the application of ideas and the generation of new ones.
The knowledge contribution stage The management cycle is about encouraging employees to publish what they have learned in the municipal knowledge base (like a repository). It is only in this way that individual knowledge can be made visible and available to the whole organization, where appropriate.
McElroy describes a knowledge life cycle that includes the processes of the knowledge product, the integration of ions and knowledge, with a series of feedback loops to organizational memory, beliefs and claims and the business processing environment.
The formulation of problem claims is an attempt to learn and state the specific natureof the knowledge gap detected.
The formulation of knowledge claims acts as a response to approved problem claims through information acquisition and individual and group learning.
New knowledge claims are tested and reviewed through the knowledge claim assessment process.
Evaluating knowledge claims survives claims will be incorporated as new organizational knowledge or falsified / indecisive knowledge statements.
The experience gained through the application of knowledge in the organizational knowledge base leads to new claims and the resulting beliefs, triggering the cycle to start over.
In the production of knowledge, the primary processes are individual and group learned.nweaving. Formulation of knowledge claims, acquisition of information; codified knowledge claim and knowledge claim assessment.
These knowledge production processes can be summarized as -
Individual and group learning marks the first organizational learning stage.
Validation of knowledge demands includes codi ﬁ cation at the organization level.
A formalized procedure is essential for the reception and codification of and group innovations.
Adding information is the process whereby an organization deliberately or accidentally acquires knowledge or information produced by others, usually external to the company. This step plays a fundamental role in formulating new knowledge claims at the organizational level.
The integrationKnowledge on is the process by which an organization announces new knowledge claims about its operating environment and withdraws old ones. It includes all knowledge transmission such as teaching, knowledge sharing, and other social activities that connect an understanding of previously produced organizational knowledge to knowledge workers or accommodate newly acquired knowledge.
One of the advantages of the McElroy cycle is the clear deion of how knowledge is examined and a conscious decision is made as to whether or not it will be included in organizational memory. Knowledge authorization is a step that clearly differentiates knowledge management from document management. The KM cycle aims at processes to identify knowledge content that is of value to the organization and its employees.yes
WIIG highlights the three conditions that must be present for an organization to carry out its activities successfully.
It must have a business (products / services) and customers.
It must have resources (people, budget and facilities).
He must have the strength to act.
WIIG marks the main goal of KM as an effort "to make the organization intelligent by facilitating the creation, accumulation, deployment and 'use of quality knowledge.' The WIIG KM Cycle shows how knowledge is constructed and used as individuals or as organizations.
The following figure shows the four main stages of the WIIG model.
Building knowledge - From external and internal knowledge sources
Retaining knowledge - Stock information in a particular form
Knowledge sharing - Via intranets and knowledge management portals
Knowledge application - As part of on-board process work
Integrat Cycle ed
Here are the three main stages of integrated knowledge management strategy cycles when introduced in any organization -
- Knowledge capture and / or creation
- Knowledge sharing and dissemination
- Knowledge acquisition and application
Knowledge Capture indicates the identification and the frequent previously unnoticed codification) of internal knowledge and know-how within the organization and / or external knowledge from the environment.
Knowledge creation is the advancement of new knowledge and innovaknow-how which have no previous existence within the organization.
Once it is clear that the newly identified content has sufficient value, the next step is to contextualize that content. This involves maintaining a link between knowledge and those who know that content.
The contextualization also indicates the identification of key elements of the content to better match a variety of users. Finally, contextualization is successful when new content is firmly, precisely, but perfectly integrated into the business processes of the enterprise.
The knowledge management cycle is then rechecked as users understand and decide to use the content.
Users will update the utility, and they will report when it becomes obsolete or when this knowledge is not applicable.