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Principles of organizational management

Management - introduction   2020-11-21 23:19:35

The following illustration shows the five principles of organization - Labor specialization Also known as , labor specialization is the degree to which organizational tasks are Specialization is extended, for example operating a particular machine in a factory assembly line. Groups are structured on the basis of similar skills. Activities or jobs tend to be small, but workers can perform them effectively because they are specialized in it. Despite the obvious advantages of specialization, many organizations deviate from this principle because too much specialization isolates them from employees and reduces their skills to effectperform routine tasks. Moreover, it makes people in the organization dependent. Therefore, organizations create and develop work processes to reduce dependence on particular skills among employees and facilitate job rotation between them. Authority L "authority is legitimate power assigned to a manager to make decisions, issue orders and allocate resources on behalf " s organization to achieve organizational goals . Authority is part of the framework of the organizational structure and is an essential part of the manager "s role. Authority follows a top-down hierarchy. Roles or positions at the top of the hierarchy are vested with more formal authority than positions at the bottom. The scope and level of authority are defined by the role of the manager. The subordinates comply with the authority of the manager as this is a formal and legal right.time to issue orders. Chain of command The chain of command is an important concept in building a strong organizational structure. It is the unbro ken line of authority that ultimately connects each individual to the top organizational position through a leadership position at each successive level in between. It is an effective business tool for maintaining order and assigning responsibility, even in the most casual work environments. A chain of command is established so that everyone knows to whom they must report and what responsibilities are expected at their level. A chain of command reinforces responsibility and accountability. It is based on the two principles of Unity of Command and Scalar Principle . Unity of command states that an employee must have one and only one manager or one supervisor or oneresponsible body to which it is directly responsible. This is done to ensure that the employee does not receive conflicting requests or priorities from multiple supervisors at once, leaving them in a confused situation. However, there are exceptions to the chain of command in special circumstances for tasks if necessary. But for most organizations, to a large extent, organizations should adhere to this principle for effective results. The scalar principle states that there should be a clear line of authority from the position of ultimate authority at the top to every individual in the organization, connecting all managers at all levels. This is a concept called a gang board whereby a subordinate can contact a superior or his superior in an emergency, challenging the hierarchy of control. However, immediate superiors should be informed of the question. Delegation Another important concept closely related to authority is delegation. It is the practice of entrusting work-related duties and / or authority to employees or subordinates. Without delegation, managers do all the work themselves and underutilize their employees. The ability to delegate is crucial for the success of management. Authority is sa id to be delegated when discretion is acquired from a subordinate by a superior. Delegation is the downward transfer of authority from a manager to a subordinate. Superiors or managers cannot delegate authority that they do not have, however, they can be high in the organizational hierarchy. Delegation as a process involves the establishment of expected results, the assignment of tasks, the delegation of authority for the accomplishment of those tasks, and the exaction of responsibility for their accomplishmentt. Delegation leads to empowerment, as employees have the freedom to contribute ideas and do their jobs in the best possible way. Scope of Control Scope of Control (also called Scope of Management) refers to the number of employees who report to a manager. This is the number of direct reports a manager has and for whom he is responsible for results. Scope of control is essential for understanding the organizational design and group dynamics operating within an organization. The scope of control can change from department to department within the same organization. The scope can be wide or narrow. A wide field of control exists when a manager has a large number of employees under his responsibility. Such a structure offers more autonomy. Close control exists when the number of direct reports available to a manager is low. The deadlinesNarrows allow managers to spend more time with direct reports, and they tend to drive career growth and advancement.