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Gender Marketing: Definition and Applications

Selling on the Internet   2020-06-21 18:55:07

[if IE 9]> " style = "max- height: 400px; max-width: 99%; "> Gender marketing Everyone knows the cliches: men love soccer and cars, women fashion and romantic comedies. We meet these kinds of stereotypes in everyday life and the media. The scariest thing is that there is sometimes a hint of truth in these shots, the simple reason that education and culture do not encourage men and women to take an interest in the same fields. Is it a coincidence that, during the French Football Cup, we mainly broadcast advertising spots on big displacement, and during the election of Miss France, products for sustainable curls? If gender education is not new, gender marketing is only a recent consequence, born in the 90s United States, and which has sincesolidly established in France. But what exactly is gender marketing, and how does it work? Summary "> Definition: what is gender marketing? Gender specificities in consumption habits The failure of Pink it and shrink it, or why gender marketing is not so simple How do women and men buy? How does gender marketing work? The product La distribution Create a comfortable sales atmosphere for women Bet on efficiency and speed on men Change of scenery in online commerce Communication The staff Women are considering-buyingits global context Men favor a quick-decision Does gender marketing still make sense today? Examples of gender marketing: women do-it-yourself and men cook? The new practices in terms of do-it-yourself and the increased role ofs women Is gender-based marketing the cause of poor nutrition? An example of failed gender marketing: sandwiches for men, sandwiches for women Gendered marketing in online commerce The dangers of gender marketing and ways to escape it Definition: what is gender marketing? The " gender is often confused with biological sex, but it is however a very different concept, since it designates sex socio-cultural . If biological sex is, in most cases, defined from birth, the concept of gender implies a social and cultural construction, first the roles and behaviors traditionally attributed to men and women . The essential question therefore rests, independently of biology, on cultural conditioning which attributes different characteristics, tastes and centers of interest to men and women. What distinguishes women and men in their models of functioning, and where these differences find their source, is the whole purpose of gender studies, which knowt unprecedented development in recent years. Insofar as they explore psychology and sociology, gender studies can also provide lucrative marketing opportunities. There are indeed many companies and the media that use gender marketing in their strategy, that is to say measures based on behavior and consumption habits according to the gender of the target. Gender specificities in consumption habits If women and men develop different tastes and behaviors, this has its source from early childhood : indeed, most of the little girls are offered dolls and dinettes, while the little boys receive cars and construction sets. The toy industry uses these habits tohis own endings for decades already, with Barbie dolls in their pink houses on one side, and adventurous superheroes on the other. And this industry is proving to be extremely lucrative. Gender stereotypes do not disappear in adulthood . For example, it is considered that women will tend to prefer a cozy interior with neat decoration, while men"s accommodation is often simply and functionally furnished. Gender marketing is based on these beliefs and seeks to understand on what criteria are the different behaviors in terms of consumption based and what, for men or for women, triggers the decision to buy. The failure of Pink it and shrink it, or why gender marketing is not so simple If the concept pink it and shrink it, which means" do thesame thing in pink and smaller, has long prevailed in gender marketing, it is today outdated and we recognize its limits unanimously. Girls are indeed encouraged to love pink from their earliest childhood, but that does not mean that repainting everything in pink is enough to reach consumers. Gender marketing is a little more complex, and requires a real planned strategy. In particular, psychological factors play an essential role. This type of marketing thus draws on research in psychology and neuroscience to draw conclusions on different purchasing behaviors of women and men, based on their needs, interests and preferences. How do women and men buy? All consumers, regardless of gender, follow a decision process before buying any product. This process is divided into five steps : Determine a need Find an overview of the market Compare products Choose one from a selection Buy it The following graph illustrates the differences in the purchasing decision process between women and men. - [if IE 9]> The purchasing decision process is different for men and women. It would seem that men follow a linear process , in which each step is taken only once: they focus onStep in progress to resolve it, then go to the next step. It seems that their approach to the purchasing process is perceived as the search for a solution adapted to a problem , in this case a product adapted to a need . This involves first meeting a certain number of criteria that the product in question must meet and found, for example, by comparing several. When the consumer finds a product that meets these criteria, he makes the purchase decision and the process ends. It seems that women, on the other hand, follow a purchasing decision process in the form of a spiral , in which each step is crossed several times . The objective would be different, since women would not only seek an appropriate solution, but a perfect solution . To do this, they would develop a set of detailed criteria, which could be supplemented or modified.anytime. The purchasing decision process for women would therefore be more complex and longer than that for men. Finally, the product must be convincing in all areas because it would be considered in a global context. If a consumer finds the perfect product, that doesn"t mean she will buy it immediately. Figures show that 61% of women go to several stores or online stores before actually buying a product. How does gender marketing work? Gender marketing is all about integrating differences behavior between men and women in product development, marketing and communication. To this end, the corresponding marketing mix uses 7P: Product , Place (distribution policy), Price (price policy), Promotion (communication policy), Personal (personnel policy), Process and Physical Facilities (physical evidence policy). The fields concerning product, distribution, communication and personnel are particularly interesting with regard to gender marketing, since these instruments can easily be adapted to the needs and preferences of both men and women. women. Here, for each of these areas, the essential points to take into account to promote your product or service in the context of gender marketing. The product Product policy, which covers the entire design process of vur product is the heart of marketing and influences all other fields. The success or failure of a product is played out from its creation phase. As an entrepreneur, you should start by determining which group you are targeting, and what their specific requirements are. The choice of the target group is based on different criteria, such as age, social status or lifestyle. It is during the identification phase of the target group that we determine whether gender-based marketing is a relevant option for the product or service offered: does your clientele include men, women or gender is it indifferent? Do customers have specific expectations for your product based on their gender, or is there no difference? For gender marketing, it"s important to associate the product with a group of women and men , and not just to boast aboutes profits. This is how many products, which are often very successful, are advertised differently for men and women, so that they can be used by everyone and sell twice as much. One thinks in particular of razors which, if they ultimately differ little whether they are intended for women or men, are the subject of a completely different design and marketing. The Gilette company, which offers razors for men and women, is a good example of gender marketing. Indeed, products intended for women are distinguished not only from those of men by a different design and communication, but also by a separate website, Gillette Venus . The company thus emphasizes the differences between its two target groups. Indeed, the razors for men , in their colors, their design and their presentation, put above all the emphasis on the sport aspectif and performance , even extreme and highly unlikely situations. It is enough to be convinced to watch the advertisement for the Fusion Proglide razor , produced in 2011: in this spectacular video, two men decide, to compare the performance of their respective razors, to go to shave at the bottom of an ocean infested with sharks. One has the Fusion Proglide, the other has an ordinary razor. Obviously, the latter cuts itself off and attracts the sharks which probably end up devouring it, while the razor-sharp man Gillette is unharmed. This is about performance, competition, self-control and even survival, qualities and dispositions traditionally attributed to men. In advertisements for women"s razors, however, there is no question of performance. The advertisement for the Venus Proskin Sensitive razor, which features singer Jennifer Lopez, is aimed at women with sensitive skin: eHe promises them less irritation, "beautiful skin," the soft skin of a goddess, highlighting the aesthetic nature of shaving, reinforced by the presence of the singer, an icon of beauty presented as the model to be attained. In parallel, the advertisement depicts another woman in a bathrobe and bath towel over her head, in an idyllic bathroom; the contrast between the private and domestic setting, as fantasized as it is, and the concert by Jennifer Lopez, who proudly shows off her shaved legs on stage, reveals a more complex aspect of gender marketing for women: the private time of preparation , private, which precedes exhibition and public validation. In these two examples of razor ads, it"s about protecting the skin and avoiding cuts and chafing, a disadvantage of shaving that everyone, men and women alike, prefers to avoid. Communication is however totally different depending on the target group.l the brand addresses itself: for men, the extreme competition which goes as far as their very survival, and for women a requirement for beauty, softness and representation. These distinctions obviously do not only apply to razors, and it’s interesting to note how advertisers use gender stereotypes to attribute different connotations to the same product, and thus better reach a defined target group. Here are some examples of consumer products with different overtones, depending on whether they are intended for men or women. Products for men / featured features Products for women / featured features Large cars / Entertainment and adventure Small cars / ease of use Beer / High alcohol content Light alcohols and sparkling, rose wine / Low calorie Technical and technological objects / Entertainment, performance Appliances / Speed ​​and ease ofuse Suits, ties, shoes and watches / Seriousness, power, wealth Fashion and accessories / Fantasy, gaiety, creativity Razors and fragrances for men / Hygiene, power, seduction Cosmetics and perfumes / Beauty, lightness and eternal feminine The distribution The distribution is the sales environment in which consumers shop. Whether it"s a regular store or an online shopping platform doesn"t matter, but the sales environment plays a critical role in the buying decision. In the case of a store, lighting, presentation on the shelves and cleanliness are decisive criteria. Regarding online stores, it is essential to take care of the web design and content organization, so that the navigation is fluid and immediately understandable. If these aspects are important for general sales, what are the criteria for specific gender marketing environments? Create a comfortable sales atmosphere for women If it is a cliche, it turns out that many women enjoy shopping. They spend comparatively more than men in stores, and that’s why it isit is wise to encourage them in this direction by creating a pleasant atmosphere . This includes cleanliness, storage, as well as a harmonious interior design, in which the furniture and colors are well matched. It is also very important to use lighting work and to prefer diffuse and flattering lights to raw neon lights, especially in the changing rooms and in all places provided with mirrors. Finally, it is recommended to choose a pleasant and catchy music, neither aggressive nor too loud. Advice Within the store, the arrangement of products in the space plays a major role. In addition to the obviously more attractive aesthetic aspect, it would seem that placing the products close to each otherothers further stimulate the urge to buy in women. Bet on efficiency and speed on men Unlike the majority of women, many men are not really fond of shopping; in general, most men go to stores to buy something specific, which they need quickly. They focus on this task, trying to spend little time there. If in this context the atmosphere matters less, it is however essential to be able to quickly find the desired product, and that the wait at the cash desk is not too long. These are expectations that electronics stores, whose customers are mainly male, have understood: they apply it in their simple layouts with well-structured shelving ,very visible orientation and powerful light, without any other form of detail. Changing scenery in online business Website administrators have also experienced this since then: Targeted gender-specific sales environments would increase the number of orders . It"s not just about adapting the web design, but also the texts and the way the products are presented. According to the researchers, women would prefer static images, while men would be more sensitive to videos. To achieve their goal of making a purchasing decision as quickly as possible, men tend to read the product deion first, which brings together all the characteristics in the form of a clear and detailed list, in the form of figures and factual data. Women are more likely to seek out as much information as possiblethe on the products, and would therefore be ready to read longer texts. The texts accompanying the product sheets must therefore be subject to special care and contain a lot of information. Communication These are all communication measures , internal and external, taken by a company to promote its product. This includes commercials broadcast on television or on the Internet, as well as any type of digital communication, for example on social media and through emailing , which reach many customers. Email promotion has the significant advantage of being easy to personalize when the recipient has provided enough information. Emails are therefore well suited to gender marketing. In commercials , companies also seek to address men and women differently. Advertisements for cars for example, mainly intended for men, often highlight characteristics considered to be typically masculine. The vehicle is staged so as to highlight its sporty and rapid character. Male customers are therefore invited to project themselves behind the wheel of this vehicle, which will give them a feeling of freedom and adventure. Small car ads, most often aimed at women, emphasize the compact, practical and maneuverable aspect. The advertisers will then insist on the numerous storage spaces in the cabin, the driving and the maneuvers facilitated, and the fact that this small car is easy to park everywhere, thus perpetuating stereotypes well widthred in many cultures, according to which women are rarely flying acesant. The staff The staff includes all people related to the product, employees of the company that sells it, to customers who potentially "buy . Among the employees are also those who operate a service directly (for example in the case of a moving company) or peripheral to the sale, such as advice, shipments or complaints. Competent staff create a better relationship with customers. In this sense, it can be interesting to educate staff on the topic of gender marketing, both to avoid stereotypes that are sometimes tiresome for certain clients, but also because it may be wise to choose the right people for the right people. products: thus, a woman will surely be better able to sell or help for an product intended for women, and the same is obviously true for men. Women consider a purchase in its global context It seems that women make a purchase decision based on multiple criteria, not only related to the very qualities of the product in question . They would indeed establish an emotional link with the product, while wishing to collect the maximum amount of objective information about it . As a result, they often ask many questions and expect complete answers. For example, when buying a pair of shoes, it is common for women to think about the other pieces of their wardrobe, and if this new purchase will be able to match what they already have . It is therefore essential to train staff in quality personalized advice . Men favor a quick decision Men would be more easily convinced by functional arguments , such as figures and factual data , only through personalized communication. Men often make a purchase because they have a specific need, and are inclined to ask questions about whether the selected product is able to meet that need. To put it simply, they would operate on a "pros and cons" system, and buy the product with the most "pros". It is therefore essential that staff have a good knowledge of each product and their respective qualities to answer specific questions. Indeed, it seems that if consumers feel that the person responsible for advising them is not competent, they prefer to buy their product elsewhere. Does gender marketing still make sense today? It is clear that gender marketing is not suitable for all sectors. It can only be useful in the case of a product for which the needs differ greatly from one genre to another . This is particularly often the case with fashion, since the morphologies are different between men and women, justifying the fact of creating suitable clothing. Tastes and expectations are also different between men and women, since women are more encouraged to be attractive, while in men, more emphasis will be placed on practicality and durability. In the fashion industry, where gender stereotypes are still prevalent, it can pay off to use gender marketing. But is it also relevant in other areas, such as DIY or food? Examples of gender marketing: women tinkering and men cooking? French society has evolved considerably over the past sixty years: today, few women dream of getting married and looking after their own home, most are studying and wanting to pursue a professional career. The situation of men has also changed significantly, and the number of single people of all genders has increased dramatically. alone, and must manage independently in all aspects of daily life, whether assembling furniture or cooking. In these two areas, it is not necessarily justified to appeal gender marketing, since they address needs common to everyone . To persist in referring to outdated roles would be irritating for most consumers. New practices in terms ofDIY and the increasing role of women Since 1998, the FIFG and Castorama have been carrying out a study whose the last part, published in 2006 , shows the increase in the number of women who do DIY regularly, since in 2006 the figures are as follows: 79% of women regularly do small DIY, 72% of gardening, and 32% of heavy work . The number of women doing DIY jobs (fitting a joint, drilling a hole and doing minor repairs) increased considerably between 2004 and 2006, from 58% to 79%. It also seems that women almost catch up with men when it comes to shelving or painting walls. It is therefore no longer a domain reserved for men. Women show themselves to be largely independent with regard to small DIY, gardening and decoration. They are also 40% for large jobs, for which they are numerous.its to seek help. - [if IE 9]> The IFOP and Castorama study shows that women are autonomous in small DIY, gardening and decoration, and do not hesitate to get help when it comes to big DIY / Source: IFOP and Castorama study, 2006, Would gender marketing be the origin of poor nutrition? It is obvious that gender marketing can also have negative effects on society, in particular with regard to promotion of nutrition . As the number of singles is constantly increasing, men and women live alone and are responsible for preparing their own repas. However, the advertisements continue to show us an increasingly outdated model: women prepare healthy and balanced meals for the whole family, while men unpack ready-made products full of additives that they heat up in the micro- waves. The spread of these stereotypes is hurting society as a whole: if men tend to normalize eating too much fat and losing interest in meal preparation, women have to the opposite tends to highlight the “health" aspect of meals and to monitor their silhouette, sometimes to the point of undernourishing to correspond to the canons of beauty ubiquitous in advertising in general. Finally, this type of discourse showing women cooking for their whole family, and unaccountable single men, obviously does not help a better distribution of household tasks among couples and families. The food sector isSo it is particularly cluttered with stereotypes . Male celebrities are often called upon to tout fatty, sugary, soda products; we are thinking in particular of the advertisement for Kinder Bueno featuring Jo-Wilfried Tsonga. Women are invited to consume mineral water, low-fat yogurts and salads of all kinds. Some brands, well aware that this segregation represents a considerable shortfall, take the issue backwards by trying to reverse the codes, sometimes not without a certain amount of cynicism. These marketing strategies have been very successful, although they are largely problematic . It seems completely hypocritical to present a top-model eating rich and fatty burgers, when we know the working conditions of the models, always pushed to be increasingly lean, and who end up starving, sometimes at panointed to die. In fact, there were at least 6 deaths of models linked to anorexia between 2006 and 2012, according to the Quebec association Les Sous de la Beaute . These discourses encouraging a different diet between men and women obviously have consequences on eating practices according to gender, as shown in the graph below, following an INSEE survey carried out between 2001 and 2006. < ! - [if IE 9]> Women eat considerably more fruits and vegetables than men. The item "other food expenses, for which expenses are much higher for men, could correspond to ready-made products. / Source: Insee, 2001 and 2006 Family Budget survey Un example of myMissed gender marketing: sandwiches for men, sandwiches for women The Rue Traversette cannery has been selling two vegetable preparations since 2015, respectively called "sandwich for men" and "sandwich for women". The deion of the sandwich for men is as follows: "Vegetables with virile accents, symbol of the male" vigorous. Leeks, carrot, onion, asparagus, a touch of ginger (obviously) and a hint of white wine (a bit of delicacy anyway). Prefer a good country bread for a toasted sandwich. The sandwich for women is presented as follows: "Flat stomach effect guaranteed!" Fiber, vegetables for good transit and a hint of olive oil. Fennel, zucchini, celery, avocado pulp and some toasted flax seeds, you are ready for a sparkling cure of good humor. Do not forget your jogging. This is a perfect example of sexist stereotypes through a simple recipe which could almost seem trivial: if men are invited to show their strength and their virility, by loving high-quality food and by being sexually efficient, women, they are enjoined to watch their line, by eating diuretic foods and playing sports, but also to remain playful and "sparkling." These sexist injunctions (vigor and performance for men, thinness and good humor for women) are unfortunately still the business of many brands today, even if the protests, numerous, are increasingly heard. Gendered marketing in online business Obviously, online business is no exception to gender marketing. Women consume more online, especially when it comes toready-to-wear, household equipment and food, while men order more alcohol and tobacco, and more often make online reservations, whether they be hotels or of restaurants. - [if IE 9]> "style = " max- height: 400px; max- width: 99%; "> Women use online commerce more than men. / Source : BDF survey, 2006, INSEE, CREDOC treatments, http://www.credoc.fr/pdf/Rech/C309.pdf So we find certain gender specificities and social constructions in the types of products purchased: women spend more money on domestic life and their physical appearance, while men spend more on entertainment and are more oriented towards the outside worldlaughing. Gender-different behaviors are the same online: women, who buy more than men overall, have more time to compare different products online. The advantages of online shopping are obvious: items are sent quickly, often for free, they can also be returned, and it is sometimes even possible to pay only on delivery. These are all practical criteria that help convince women, who still take care of the majority of the household and seek to save time. It is therefore important, for websites corresponding to articles bought mainly by women, to set up a design and services in accordance with their needs: a clear interface, a frequently asked questions and a fast and personalized customer service. . The dangers of gender marketing and ways to escape it The domains formerly reserved for men are today more and more accessible to women. This is particularly true for DIY and technical fields. The opposite is true, and more and more men are taking care of the home, although real equality is still far from being achieved . These social changes imply an evolution in the traditional attribution of the roles of men and women . Instead of perpetuating many sexist stereotypes, intelligent gender marketing should therefore embrace social developments and, by the same token, highlight its modern and innovative character. This is particularly the case with the very successful AXA campaign for the "ELLE program. Produced in 2017 and entitled "The masculine prevails over the feminine, this spot highlights wage and social inequalities, very real, between men and women, and offers a solution to remedy it. By taking a stand for more social justice for women, AXA does appeal to gender marketing, but scrupulously avoids cliches and sends back the image of a modern and problem-oriented company. his time . Gender marketing is therefore not a danger in itself , but can become so if it is implemented in such a way that it perpetuates stereotypes and sexist injunctions, in which the women are enjoined to be thin and pretty and to take care of the home, while the men must be virile, efficient, and turned towards the outside world. However, it seems that these cliches are repeated within a vicious circle involving all the actors: companies , which commit large budgets, often prefer to use stereotypes , forthe simple reason that it is the most common route, and therefore the least risky. Advertisers , who pocket this money, have neither interest nor necessarily much room for maneuver to meet or evolve the demands of their customers. The public , finally, is also accustomed to these stereotypes, so that even if it perfectly captures the grotesque aspect of certain gendered advertisements , does not necessarily put it back in question, however.