Electronic Circuits  Quick Guide
Electronic Circuits  Introduction
In electronics we have different components that serve different purposes. There are different elements which are used in many types of circuits depending on the applications.
Electronic Components
Similar to a brick that builds a wall, a component is the basic brick of a circuit. A component is a building block that helps develop an idea into a circuit of execution.
Each component has a few basic properties and the component behaves accordingly. It depends on the currency of the developer to use them for the construction of the planned circuit. The following image shows some examples of electronic components used in different electronic circuits.
Just to get an idea, let's look at themtypes of components. They can be active components or passive components .
active components

Active components are those which conduct when providing external energy.

Active components produce energy in the form of voltage or current.

Examples  Diodes, transistors, transformers, etc.
Passive components

Passive components are those which start their operation once they 'they are connected. No external energy is required for their operation.

Passive components store and maintain energy in the form of voltage or current.

Examples  Resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc.
We also have another classification like linear and Nonlinear elements .
Linear components

Linear elements or components are those which have a linear nship relationship between current and voltage.

The parameters of the linear elements are not changed with respect to current and voltage.

Examples  Diodes, transistors, transformers, etc.
Nonlinear components

Nonlinear elements or components are those that have a relation nonlinear between current and voltage.

The parameters of the nonlinear elements are changed with respect to current and voltage.

Examples  Resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc.
These are the components for various purposes, Circuit name .
Electronic Circuits
A number of components connected to a goal in a specific way make a circuit . A circuit is a network of different components. There are different types of circuits.
The following image shows different types of electronic circuits. It shows circuit boards which are a group of electronic circuits connected on a board.
Electronic circuits can be grouped into different categories depending on their operation, connection, structure, etc. Let's talk in more detail about the types of electronic circuits.
Active circuit

A circuit built using active components is called Active circuit .

It usually contains a power source from which the circuit extracts more power and delivers it to the load.

Additional power is added to the output and therefore the output power is always greater than the applied input power.

The power gain will always be greater than unity.
Passive circuit

A circuit built using passive components is called Passive circuit .

Even though it contains a power source, the circuit does not extract any power.

The extra power is not added to the output and therefore the output power is always less than the applied input power.

The power gain will always be less than unity.
Electronic circuits can also be classified as analog, digital or mixed .
Analog circuit
Digital circuit

A digital circuit can be a circuit that contains nonlinear components . It is therefore a nonlinear circuit.

It can only process digital signals.

A digital circuit has a digital signal inputs which are discrete values.
Mixed signal circuit

A mixed signal circuit can be one that contains at both linear and nonlinear components. Hence, it is called mixed signal circuit.

These circuits consist of analog circuits with microprocessors to process the input.
Depending on the type of connection, circuits can be classified as Series circuit or Parallel circuit . A series circuit is one that is connected in series and a parallel circuit is one whose components are connected in parallel.
Now that we have a basic idea about electronic components, let's go ahead and discuss their purpose which will help us build better circuits for different applications. Whatever the purpose of an electronic circuit (process, send, receive, analyze), the process is carried out in the form of signals. In the next chapter we will discuss the signals and the type of signals present in electronic circuits.
Electronic Circuits  Signals
A Signal can be understood as "a representation which gives information about the data present at the source from which it is produced. "It usually varies over time. So a signal can be a source of energy that transmits information .It can't easily be represented on a graph.
Examples
 An alarm gives a signal that it is time.
 A cook's whistle confirms that the food is done.
 A red light indicates danger.
 A traffic light indicates your move.
 A phone rings to signal a call for you.
A signal can be any type that transmits information. This signal produced by electronic equipment is called an Electronic Signal or Electrical Signal . These are usually time variants.
Types of signals
Signals can be classified as analog or digital, depending on their characteristics. Analog and digital signals can be further classified as shown in the following image.
Analog signal
A continuous signal varying dn time, which is a quantity varying over time, can be termed an Analog signal . This signal continues to vary over time, as a function of the instantaneous values of the magnitude which represents it.
Digital signal
A signal which is discrete in nature or whose shape is noncontinuous can be described as digital signal . This signal has individual values, shown separately, which are not based on previous values, as if they were derived at that particular time.
Periodic signal and aperiodic signal
Any analog or digital signal, which repeats its pattern over a period of time, is called a periodic signal . This signal has its pa Ttern continued over and over and is easy to guess or calculate.
Any analog or digital signal, which does not repeat its pattern over a period of time, is called an Aperiodic signal . This signal has its pattern continued but the pattern is not repeated and is not so easy to guess or calculate.
Signals and Notations
Among the periodic signals , the most commonly used signals are the sine wave, the cosine wave, the shape triangle wave, square wave, rectangular wave, sawtooth waveform, pulse waveform or pulse train, etc., let's see these waveforms.
Unit step signal
The unit step signal has the value of one unit from its origin to one unit on the X axis. This is mainly used as a test signal. The image of the unit step signal is shown below.
The unit step function is denoted by $ u left (t right) $. It is defined as 
$$ u left (t right) = left {begin {matrix} 1 & t geq 0 0 & t <0 end {matrix} right. $$
Signal d 'unit pulse
The unit pulse signal has the value of one unit at its origin. Its area is one unit. The image of the unit pulse signal is shown below.
The unit pulse function is denoted by ẟ (t) . It is defined as being
$$ delta left (t right) = left {begin {matrix} infty:: if:: t = 0 0:: if: : t neq 0 end {matrix} right. $$
$ $ int _ { infty} ^ {infty} delta left (t right) d left (t right) = 1 $$
$ $ int _ { infty} ^ {t} left delta (t right) d left (t right) = u left (t right) $$
$$ delta left (t right) = frac {du left (t right)} {d left (t right)} $$
Unit ramp signal
The ramp signal of unit sees its value increase exponentially from its origin. The image of the unit ramp signal is shown below.
The unit ramp function is denoted by u (t) . It is defined as 
$$ int_ {0} ^ {t} u left (t right) d left (t right) = int_ {0} ^ {t} 1 dt = t = r left (t right) $$
$$ u left (t right) = frac {left dr (t right)} {dt} $$
Unit parabolic signal
The unitary parabolic signal has its value changing like a parabola at its origin. The image of the unit parabolic signal is shown below.
The parabolic unit function is denoted by $ u left (t right) $. It is defined as 
$$ int_ {0} ^ {t} int_ {0} ^ {t} u left (t right) dtdt = int_ {0} ^ {t} r left (t right) dt = int_ {0} ^ {t} t.dt = frac {t ^ {2}} {2} dt = x left (t right) $$
$$ r left (t right) = frac {dx left (t right)} {dt} $$
$$ u left (t right) = frac {d ^ {2} x left (tright)} {dt ^ {2}} $$
Signum Function
The Signum function has its value equally distributed in the positive and negative planes since its origin. The image of the Signum function is shown below.
The Signum function is denoted sgn (t) . It is defined as
$$ sgn left (t right) = left {begin {matrix} 1:: for:: t geq 0  1:: for:: t <0end { matrix} right. $$
$$ sgn left (t right) = 2u left (t right) 1 $$
Exponential signal
The exponential signal has its variable value exponentially from its origin. The exponential function is in the form of 
$$ x left (t right) = e ^ {alpha t} $$
The form of the exponential can be defined by $ alpha $. This ion function can be understood in 3 cases
Case 1 
If $ alpha = 0 rightflow x left (t right) = e ^ {0} = 1 $
Case 2 
If $ alpha <0 $ then x left (t right) = e ^ {alpha t} where is negative. this form called exponential decay .
Case 3 
If $ alpha> 0 $ then $ x left (t right) = e ^ {alpha t} $ where $ alpha $ is positive. This form is called exponential increase .
Rectangular signal
The rectangular signal has its value distributed in rectangular shape in the positive and negative planes from its origin. rectangular signal is shown below.
The function rectangular is denoted $ x left (t right) $. It is defined as follows:
$$ x left (t right) = A: rect left [frac {t} {T} right] $$
Triangular signal
LThe rectangular signal has its value distributed in triangular shape in the positive and negative planes from its origin. The image of the triangular signal is shown below.
The triangular function is denoted by $ x left (t right) $. It is defined as follows:
$$ x left (t right) = A left [1  frac {left  t right } {T} right] $$
Sinusoidal signal
The sinusoidal signal has its value varying sinusoidally from its origin. The image of the sinusoidal signal is shown below.
The sinusoidal function is denoted x (t). It is defined as 
$$ x left (t right) = A cos left (w_ {0} t pm phi right) $$
or
$$ x left (t right) = A sin left (w_ {0} t pm phi right) $$
Where $ T_ {0} = frac {2 pi} {w_ {0}} $
Sinc function
The signal Sinc has its value which varies according to a particular relation as in the equation given below. It has its maximum value originally and continues to decrease as it moves away. The image of a Sinc function signal is below.
The Sinc function is denoted by sinc ( t) . It is defined as 
$$ sinc left (t right) = frac {sin left (pi t right)} {pi t} $$
So these are the different signals that we come across most commonly in the electronics and communications field. Each signal can be defined in a mathematical equation to facilitate signal analysis.
Each signal has a particular waveform as mentioned earlier. Shaping the waveform can alter the content present in the signal. Either way, it's up to you. design engineer to decide whether or not to modify a wave for a particular circuit.s, to modify the shape of the wave, there are few techniques which will be covered in other units
Electronic Circuits  Linear Wave Shaping
A signal can also be referred to as a Wave . Each wave has a certain shape when represented in a graph. This shape can be of different types such as sinusoidal, square, triangular, etc. which vary according to the period or they can have random forms without taking into account the period.
Types of waveforms
There are two main types of waveforms. They are 
 Linear waveformatting
 Nonlinear waveformatting
Linear wave shaping
Linear elements such as resistors, capacitors and inductors are used to form a signal in this linear wave shaping. A sinusoidal input has an outputsinusoidal tie and, therefore, nonsinusoidal inputs are more used to understand linear wave shaping.
Filtering is the process of attenuating the unwanted signal or reproducing selected parts of the frequency components of a particular signal.
Filters
When shaping a signal, if some parts of the signal are felt to be unwanted, they can be muted off with the help of a filter circuit. A filter is a circuit that can remove unwanted parts of a signal at its input . The process of signal strength reduction is also called Attenuation.
We have few components that help us in filtering techniques.
Using these properties, these two components are mainly used to block or allow AC or DC . Filters can be designed based on these properties.
We have four main types of filters 
 Low pass filter
 High pass filter
 Bandpass filter
 Band stop filter
Now let's talk about these types of filters in detail.
Low Pass Filter
A filter circuit that allows a set of frequencies below a specified value can be called a low pass filter . This filter passes low frequencies. The circuit diagram of a low pass filter using RC and RL is shown below.
The capacitor filter or RC filter and the induct filtereur or RL filter both act as low pass filters.

The RC filter  As the capacitor is placed in shunt, the alternating current that it allows is put to Earth. high frequency components while allowing DC to output.

The RL filter  As the inductor is placed in series, the DC is allowed at the The inductor blocks the alternating current which is not allowed on exit.
The symbol for a low pass filter (LPF) is as shown below.
Frequency response
The frequency response of a practical filter is as shown below and the frequency response of an ideal LPF when practical considerations of electronic components are not taken into account will be as follows.
The cutoff frequency for any filter isthe critical frequency $ f_ {c} $ for which the filter is intended to attenuate (cut) the signal. An ideal filter has a perfect cutoff while a practical filter has few limits.
The RLC filter
After knowing the RC and RL filters, we can get an idea that it would be good to add these two circuits in order to have a best answer. The following figure shows what the RLC circuit looks like.
The signal at the input passes through the inductor which blocks the alternating current and allows the direct current. Now this output is again passed through the shunt capacitor, which ground the remaining AC component, if any, present in the signal, allowing DC current to be output. So we have pure DC output. This is a better low pass circuit than the two m .
High Pass Filter
A filter circuit that allows a set offrequencies above a specified value can be termed as High Pass Filter . This filter lets through the highest frequencies. The circuit diagram of a high pass filter using RC and RL is shown below.
The capacitor filter or RC filter and the inductor filter or RL both filters act as high pass filters.
The RC filter
When the capacitor is placed in series, it blocks the DC components and allows the AC components to output. Therefore, the high frequency components appear at the output to across the resistor.
The RL filter
As the inductor is shunted, the DC can be grounded. The remaining AC component appears at the output. symbol for a high pass filter (HPF) is shown below.
Frequency response
The frequency response of a practical filter is as shown below and the frequency response of 'An ideal HPF when the practical considerations of electronic components are not considered as follows.
The cutoff frequency of any filter is the critical frequency $ f_ {c} $ at which the filter is intended to attenuate (cut) the signal. An ideal filter has a perfect cutoff while a practical filter has little. of limits.
The RLC filter
After knowing the RC and RL filters, we can get an idea that it would be good to add these two circuits in order to 'have a better answer. The following figure shows what the RLC circuit looks like.
The signal at the input goes through the capacitor that blocks direct current and allows coalternative urant. Now this output is again passed through the shunt inductor, which grounds the remaining DC component, if any, present in the signal, allowing AC current to be output. Thus, we have a pure AC output. This is a better high pass circuit than both.
Bandpass filter
A filter circuit that allows a set of frequencies that are between two specified values can be referred to as a pass filter band . This filter passes a band of frequencies.
Since we need to eliminate some of the low and high frequencies, to select a specified set of frequencies, we need to cascade an HPF and an LPF to get a BPF. This can be easily understood even by observing the frequency response curves.
The circuit diagram of a band pass filter is as shown below.
The above circuit can also be built using RL circuits or RLC circuits. The one above is an RC circuit chosen for easy understanding.
The symbol for a band pass filter (BPF) is given below.
Frequency response
The frequency response of a practical filter is as shown below and the frequency response of an ideal BPF when practical considerations of electronic components are not taken into account will be as follows.
The cutoff frequency for any filter is the critical frequency $ f_ {c} $ for which the filter is intended to attenuate (cut) the signal. An ideal ter yarn has a perfect cut while a practice has few limits.
Band stop filter
A filter circuit that blocks or attenuates a set of frequencies in between the specified values can be referred to as band stop filter . This filter rejects a band of frequencies and can therefore also be referred to as a Band reject filter .
Since we need to eliminate some of the low and high frequencies, to select a specified set of frequencies we need to cascade an LPF and an HPF to get a BSF. This can be easily understood even by observing the frequency response curves.
The circuit diagram of a notch filter is shown below.
The above circuit can also be constructed using RL circuits or RLC circuits. The circuit above is an RC circuit chosen for easy understanding.
The symbol for a band stop filter (BSF) is given below.
Response en frequency
The frequency response of a practical filter is as shown below and the frequency response of an ideal BSF when practical considerations of electronic components are not taken into account will be as follows.
The cutoff frequency for any filter is the frequency critical $ f_ {c} $ for which the filter is intended to attenuate (cut) the signal. An ideal filter has a perfect cutoff while a practical filter has few limitations.
Special functions of the LPF and HPF
The low pass and high pass filter circuits are used as special circuits in many applications. The low pass filter (LPF) can function as an integrator , while the high pass filter (HPF) can function as a differentiator . These two mathematical functions ons are only possible with these circuits which reduce the forcesof an electronics engineer in many applications.
Low pass filter as an integrator
At low frequencies the capacitive reactance tends to become infinite and at high frequencies the reactance becomes zero. Therefore, at low frequencies the LPF has a finite output, and at high frequencies the output is zero, which is the same for an integrator circuit. We can therefore say that the lowpass filter works like an integrator .
So that the LPF behaves like an integrator
$$ tau gg T $$
Where $ tau = RC $ the time constant of the circuit
Then the voltage variation at C is very small.
$$ V_ {i} = iR + frac {1} {C} int i: dt $$
$$ V_ {i} cong iR $$
$$ Since:: frac {1} {C} int i: dt ll iR $$
$$ i = frac {V_ {i}} {R} $$
$$ Since:: V_ {0} = frac {1} {C} int i dt = frac {1} {RC} intV_ {i} dt = frac {1} {tau} int V_ {i} dt $$
$$ Output propto int input $ $
Therefore, an LPF with a high time constant produces an output proportional to the integral of an input.
Frequency response
The frequency response of a low pass filter, when it operates as an integrator is as shown below.
Output waveform
If the integrator circuit receives a sinusoidal input, the output will be a cosine wave. If the input is a square wave, the shape of the output wave changes shape and appears as in the figure below.
High pass filter as differential
At low frequencies , the output of a differentiator is zero while at high frequencies its output is of some finite value. This is the same as for a differentiatortor. Therefore, the high pass filter is said to behave like a differentiator.
If the time constant of the RC HPF is much less than the time period of the input signal, then the circuit behaves like a differentiator. So the voltage drop on R is very small compared to the drop on C.
$$ V_ {i} = frac {1} {C} int i: dt + iR $$
But $ iR = V_ {0} $ is small
$$ since V_ {i} = frac {1} {C} int i: dt $$
$$ i = frac { V_ {0}} {R} $$
$$ From: V_ {i} = frac {1} {tau} int V_ {0}: dt $$
Where $ tau = RC $ the time constant of the circuit.
Differentiation of the two sides,
$$ frac {dV_ {i}} {dt} = frac {V_0} {tau } $$
$$ V_ {0} = tau frac {dV_ {i}} {dt} $$
$$ Since: V_ {0} propto frac {dV_ { i}} {dt} $$
The output is proportional to the differential of the input signal.
RepoFrequency response
The frequency response of a practical high pass filter, when it operates as a differential is as shown below.
Output waveform
If the differentiation circuit receives a sine input, the output will be a cosine wave. the input is a square wave, the shape of the output wave changes shape and appears as in the figure below.
These two circuits are mainly used in
Nonlinear waveforming
With resistors, nonlinear elements like diodes are used in wagering circuitsin a nonlinear waveform to achieve the required modified outputs. Either the waveform is attenuated or the continuous level of the wave is changed in the nonlinear waveforming.
The process of producing nonsinusoidal output waveforms from sinusoidal input, using nonlinear elements is called nonwaveform shaping linear .
Clipper circuits
A Clipper circuit is a circuit which rejects the part of the specified input wave while allowing the remaining part . The part of the wave above or below the determined cutoff voltage is cut or cut.
Clipping circuits are made up of linear and nonlinear elements like resistors and diodes but not of energy storage elements like capacitors. These clipping circuits have many applications because they are advantageous.

The main advantage of clipping circuits is to eliminate parasitic noise present in the amplitudes.

These can work as square wave converters because they can convert sine waves to square waves by clipping.

The amplitude of the desired wave can be kept at a constant level.
Among diode trimmers, the two main types are positive and negative trimmers. We will discuss these two types of clippers in the next two chapters.
Electronic Circuits  Positive Clipper Circuits
The Clipper circuit which is intended to attenuate the positive parts of the input signal can be called Positive Clipper . Among the positive diode clipping circuits we have the following types 
 Clipper in positive series
 Clipper in positive series with $ V_ {r} positive$ (reference voltage)
 Positive series clipper with $ V_ {r} $
 Positive shunt clipper
 Positive shunt clipper with $ V_ { r} positive $
 Positive Shunt Clipp uh with $ V_ {r} $
Let's take a look at each of these types in detail.
Series positive clipper
A clipper circuit in which the diode is connected in series to the input signal and which attenuates the positive parts of the waveform, is called a positive series clipper . The following figure shows the circuit diagram for the positive series clipper.
Positive cycle of the input  When the input voltage is applied, the positive cycle of the input makes the point A of the circuit positive with par with respect to point B. This makes the diode reverse biased and, therefore, it behaves like an open switch. Thus, the voltage across the resistor of charge becomes zero because no current passes through it and therefore $ V_ {0} $ will be zero.
Negative cycle of the input  The negative cycle of the input makes point A of the circuit negative with respect to point B. This makes the diode forward biased and therefore it conducts like a closed switch. Thus, the voltage across the load resistor will be equal to the applied input voltage as it fully appears at the output $ V_ {0} $.
Waveforms
In the figures above, if the waveforms are observed, it can be understood that only part of the positive peak has been clipped. This is due to the voltage across V0. But the ideal result wasn 't meant to be. Let's look at the following figures.
Unlike the ideal output, a binary part of the positive cycle is present in the practical output due to the conduction voltage of the diode which is0.7 v. So there will be a difference in the practical and ideal output waveforms.
Clipper in positive series with $ V_ {r} $
A clipper circuit in which the diode is serially connected to the input signal and biased with a reference voltage positive $ V_ {r} $ and which attenuates the positive parts of the waveform, is called Clipper in positive series with positive $ V_ {r} $ . The following figure shows the circuit diagram for a positive series limiter when the applied reference voltage is positive.
During the positive cycle of the 'input, the diode is reverse biased and the reference voltage appears at the output. During its negative cycle, the diode is forward biased and conducts like a closed switch. Therefore, the output waveform appears as shown in the figure above.
Clipper in positive series with $ V_ {r}$
A Clipper circuit in which the diode is connected in series to the input signal and biased with a negative reference voltage $ V_ {r} $ and which attenuates the positive parts of the form d 'wave, is called Clipper in positive series with negative $ V_ {r} $ . The following figure shows the circuit diagram for a positive series limiter, when the applied reference voltage is negative.
During the positive cycle of the input, the diode is reverse biased and the reference voltage appears at the output. The reference voltage being negative, the same amplitude voltage constant is displayed. During its negative cycle, the diode is forward biased and conducts like a closed switch. Hence the input signal which is greater than the reference voltage, appears at the output.
Positive clipper shunt
A Clipper circuit in which the diode is connected in shunt to the input signal and which attenuates the positive parts of the waveform, is called a Positive Shunt Clipper . The following figure shows the circuit diagram for the positive shunt clipper.
Positive cycle of the input  When the input voltage is applied, the positive cycle of the input makes the point A of the circuit positive with respect to the point B. This makes the diode forward biased and hence it conducts like a closed switch . Thus, the voltage across the load resistor becomes zero because no current passes through it and therefore $ V_ {0} $ will be zero.
Negative cycle of the input  The negative cycle of the input makes point A in the circuit negative with respect to point B. This makes the diode reverse biased and therefore behaves like an open switch. Thus, the voltage across the resistor load will be equal to the voltage d input applied as it appears completely at the $ V_ {0} $ output.
Waveforms
In the figures above, if the waveforms are observed, it can be understood that only part of the positive peak has been clipped. This is due to the voltage across $ V_ {0} $. But the ideal result wasn 't meant to be. Let's take a look at the following figures.
Unlike the ideal output, a binary part of the positive cycle is present in the practical output due to the conduction voltage of the diode which is 0.7v. So there will be a difference in the practical output waveforms and ideal.
Positive clipper shunt with $ V_ {r} $
A clipper circuit in which the diode is shunted to the input signal and biased with a reference voltage positive $ V_ {r} $ and which attenuates the positive parts of the waveform, is called Positive shunt clipper with positive $ V_ {r} $. The following figure shows the circuit diagram of the positive shunt limiter when the reference voltage is applied is positive.
During the positive cycle of the input, the diode is forward biased and nothing other than that the reference voltage does not appear at the output. During its negative cycle, the diode is reverse biased and behaves like an open switch. The entire input appears at the output. Therefore, the output waveform appears as shown in the figure above.
Positive clipper shunt with $ V_ {r} $
A clipper circuit in which the diode is shunted to the input signal and biased with a negative reference voltage $ V_ {r} $ and which attenuates the positive parts of the waveform, is called Shunt Clipper positive with negative $ V_ {r} $.
The following figurete shows the wiring diagram for a positive shunt limiter, when the applied reference voltage is negative.
During the positive cycle of the input, the diode is forward biased and the reference voltage appears at the output. With the reference voltage being negative, the same Constant amplitude voltage is displayed. During its negative cycle, the diode is reverse biased and behaves like an open switch. Hence the input signal which is higher than the reference voltage, appears at the output .
Electronic Circuits  Negative Clipper Circuits
The Clipper circuit which is intended to attenuate the negative parts of the signal input can be qualified as Negative Clipper . Among the negative diode clipping circuits we have the following types.
 Clipper negative series
 Clipper negative series with $ V_ {r} positif $ (reference voltage)
 Negative serial clipper with $ V_ {r} $
 Negative clipper shunt
 Negative clipper shunt with positi ve $ V_ { r} $
 Negative shunt clipper with $ V_ {r} $
Let's examine each of these types in detail.
Negative serial clipper
A clipper circuit in which the diode is connected in series to the input signal and which attenuates the negative parts of the waveform, is called Clipper negative series . The following figure shows the circuit diagram for the negative series clipper.
Positive cycle of the input  When the input voltage is applied, the positive cycle of the input makes the point A of the circuit positive with with respect to the point B. This makes the diode biased forward and therefore acts as a closed switch. Thus the input voltage appears completely through the load resistor to produceRead the output $ V_ {0} $.
Negative cycle of the input  The negative cycle of the input makes point A in the circuit negative with respect to point B. This makes the diode polarized in inverse and therefore acts as an open switch. Thus, the voltage across the load resistor will be zero, making $ V_ {0} $ zero.
Waveforms
In the figures above, if the waveforms are observed, we can understand that only part of the negative peak has been cut. This is due to the voltage across $ V_ {0} $. But the ideal result wasn 't meant to be. Let's take a look at the following figures.
Unlike the ideal output, a binary part of the negative cycle is present in the practical output due to the conduction voltage of the diode which is 0.7v. So there will be a difference in the practical and ideal output waveforms.
Negative serial clipper with $ V_ {r} $
A clipper circuit in which the diode is connected in series to the signal input and biased with a positive reference voltage $ V_ {r} $ and which attenuates the negative parts of the waveform, is called Clipper negative series with positive $ V_ {r} $. The following figure shows the circuit diagram for a negative series limiter when the applied reference voltage is positive.
During the positive cycle of the input, the diode starts driving only when the anode voltage value exceeds the voltage value cathode voltage of the diode. As the cathode voltage is equal to the applied reference voltage, the output will be as shown.
Negative series clipper with $ V_ {r} $
A circuit Clipper in which the diode is connected in series to the input signal and biased with a negative reference voltage$ V_ {r} $ and which attenuates the negative parts of the waveform, is called Clipper negative series with negative $ V_ {r} $. The following figure shows the circuit diagram for a negative series limiter, when the applied reference voltage is negative.
During the positive cycle of the input, the diode is forward biased and the input signal appears at the output. During its negative cycle, the diode is reverse biased and therefore will not conduct. But the reference voltage negative applied, appears at the output. Hence the negative cycle of the output waveform is clipped after this reference level.
Clipper Shunt negative
A Clipper circuit in which the diode is shunted to the input signal and attenuates the negative parts of the waveform, is called Negative Clipper Shunt. The following figure shows the circuit diagram for clipper negative shunt .
Positive cycle of input  When the input voltage is applied, the positive cycle of the input makes the point A of the circuit positive with respect to the point B. This makes the diode reverse biased and therefore it behaves like a switch open. Thus, the voltage across the load resistor equals the applied input voltage as it appears completely at the output $ V_ {0} $
Negative cycle of the 'input  The negative cycle of the input makes point A in the circuit negative with respect to point B. This makes the diode forward biased and therefore it conducts like a closed switch. Thus, the voltage across the load resistor becomes zero because no current passes through it.
Waveforms
In the figures above, if the waveforms are observed, we can understand that only one partent of the negative peak has been clipped. This is due to the voltage across $ V_ {0} $. But the idea all the results weren't meant to be. Let's take a look at the following figures.
Unlike the ideal output, a binary part of the negative cycle is present in the practical output due to of the conduction voltage of the diode which is 0.7v. So there will be a difference in the practical and ideal output waveforms.
Negative clipper shunt with $ V_ {r } $
A Clipper circuit in which the diode is shunted to the input signal and biased with a positive reference voltage $ V_ {r} $ and which attenuates the negative parts of the form d 'wave, is called Negative shunt clipper with $ V_ {r} $ positive. The following figure shows the block diagram of the negative clipper shunt when the applied reference voltage is positive.
During the positive cycle of the input, the diode is reverse biased and behaves like an open switch. So the full voltage of the input The input, which is greater than the applied reference voltage, appears at the output. The signal below the reference voltage level is cut off.
During the negative half cycle, when the diode is biased live and the loop ends, no output is present.
Negative clipper shunt with $ V_ {r} $
A clipper circuit in which the diode is shunted to the input signal and biased with a negative reference voltage $ V_ {r} $ and which attenuates the negative parts of the waveform, is called Clipper Shunt negative with negative $ V_ { r} $. The following figure shows the circuit diagram for a negative clipper shunt, when the applied reference voltage is negative.
During the positive cycle of the input, the diode is reverse biased and behaves like an open switch, so the entire input voltage appears at the output $ V_ {o} $. During the negative half cycle, the diode is forward biased. The negative voltage up to the reference voltage comes to the output and the remaining signal is cut off.
Bidirectional clipper
This is a positive and negative clipper with a reference voltage $ V_ {r} $. The input voltage is clipped in both directions at both on the positive and negative parts of the input waveform with two reference voltages.To do this, two diodes $ D_ {1} $ and $ D_ {2} $ as well as two reference voltages $ V_ {r1} $ and $ V_ {r2} $ are connected in the circuit.
This The circuit is also called Combinational Clipper circuit. The figure below shows the layout of the circuit for a twoway limiter circuitl or combinatorial with its output waveform.
During half positive of the input signal, the diode $ D_ {1} $ leads to show the reference voltage $ V_ {r1} $ at the output.During the negative half of the input signal, the diode $ D_ {2} $ leads showing the reference voltage $ V_ {r1} $ at the output. The diodes lead alternately to cut the output during the two cycles. The output is taken through the load resistor.
With this , we are done with the main clipper circuits. Let's move on to the clamping circuits in the next chapter.
Electronic circuits  Clamping circuits
A clamping circuit is a circuit which adds a DC level to an AC signal. In fact, the positive and negative peaks of the signals can be set to the desired levels using the clamp circuits. When the DC level is shifted, a circuit will switch off.rrage is called level shift .
Clamping circuits are made up of energy storage elements such as capacitors. A simple clamp circuit c includes a capacitor, a diode, a resistor and a DC battery if necessary.
Clamp circuit
A clamp circuit can be defined as the circuit which consists of a diode, a resistor and a capacitor which shifts the waveform to desired DC level without changing the actual appearance of the applied signal.
In order to maintain the time period of the waveform, the tau must be greater than half the period (the capacitor discharge time must be slow .)
$$ tau = Rc $$
Where
 R is the resistance of the resistor used
 C is the capacitance of the capacitor used
The time constant of charging and discharging of the capacitor determines the output of a circtightening kit.

In a clamping circuit, a vertical shift up or down takes place in the waveform output with respect to the signal entry.

Load resistance and capacitor affect the waveform. Then the disk The rise time of the capacitor must be sufficiently large.
The DC component present in the input is rejected when a capacitor coupled network is used (as a capacitor blocks the direct current). Therefore, when dc is to be restored , a clamp circuit is used.
Types of clamps
There are few types of circuit clamps, such as
 Positive clamp
 Positive clamp with $ V_r $
 Positive clamp with negative $ V_r $
 Negative clamp
 Negative clamp with $ V_ {r} $
 Negative clamp with $ V_ {r} $
Let's examine them indetail.
Positive clamping circuit
A clamping circuit restores the DC level. When a negative signal peak is raised above the zero level, then the signal is said to be positively clamped .
A positive clamp circuit is one that consists of a diode, a resistor, and a capacitor and shifts the output signal to the positive part of the input signal. The figure below explains the construction of a positive clamping circuit.
Initially, when the input is given, the capacitor is not yet charged and the diode is reverse biased. The output is not taken into account at this point. During the negative half cycle, at the peak value, the capacitor charges negative on one plate and positive on the other. The capacitor is now charged at its peak. peak value $ V_ {m} $. The diode is forward biased and conducts strongly.
Au cIn the next positive half cycle, the capacitor is charged to positive Vm while the diode is reverse biased and goes into open circuit. The output of the circuit at this moment will be
$$ V_ {0} = V_ {i} + V_ {m} $$
The signal is therefore positively clamped as indicated in the figure above. The output signal changes according to the changes in the input, but shifts the level according to the load on the capacitor because it adds the input voltage.
Positive clamp with positive V _{ r }
A positive blocking circuit if biased with a positive reference voltage, this voltage will be added to the output to increase the locked level. Using this, the positive clamp circuit with a positive reference voltage is constructed as below.
During the positive half cycle, the reference voltage is applied through the diode to the spellie and when the input voltage increases, the cathode voltage of the diode increases with respect to the anode voltage and therefore ceases to conduct. During the negative half cycle, the diode is forward biased and begins to conduct. The voltage across the capacitor and the reference voltage together hold the output voltage level.
Positive clamp with $ V_ {r} $
A positive clamp circuit if biased with a negative reference voltage, this voltage will be added to the output to increase the blocking level. Using this, the positive clamper circuit with a positive reference voltage is built as below.
During the positive halfcycle, the voltage across the capacitor and the voltage reference values hold the output voltage level together.During the negative half cycle, the diode conducts when the cathode voltage changes.nt lower than the anode voltage. These changes make the output voltage as shown in the figure above.
Negative clamp
A negative clamp circuit is one which consists of a diode, a resistor and a capacitor and which shifts the output signal to the negative part of the signal entry. The figure below explains the construction of a negative clamping circuit.
During the positive half cycle the capacitor charges to its peak value $ v_ {m} $. The diode is forward biased and conducted. During the negative half cycle, the diode is reverse biased and turns open circuit. The output of the circuit at this time will be
$$ V_ {0} = V_ {i} + V_ {m} $$
Therefore, the signal is negatively clamped as shown in the figure above.The output signal changes according to changes in the input, but shifts the level according to theload on the capacitor, as it adds the input voltage.
Negative clamp with V _{ r }
A negative blocking circuit if it is biased with a positive reference voltage, this voltage will be added to the output to increase the blocking level. Using this, the negative clamper circuit with a positive reference voltage is built as below.
Ok that the output voltage is blocked negatively, part of the output waveform is raised to the positive level, because the applied reference voltage is positive. During the positive half cycle, the diode conducts, but the output is equal to the applied positive reference voltage.During the negative half cycle, the diode acts as an open circuit and the voltage across the capacitor forms the output.
Negative clamp with negative V _{ r }
A Negative blocking circuit if it isst biased with negative reference voltage, this voltage will be added to the output to increase the blocking level. Using this, the negative clamp circuit with negative reference voltage is constructed as below.
The cathode of the diode is c connected with a negative reference voltage, which is less than zero and anode voltage. Therefore, the diode begins to conduct for a positive half cycle, before the zero voltage level. During the negative half cycle, the voltage across the capacitor appears at the output. Thus, the waveform is blocked towards the negative part.
Applications
There are many applications for mowers and clamps such as
Clippers
 Used for generating and shaping waveforms
 Used for the protection of circuits contre les points
 Used for amplitude restorers
 Used as voltage limiters
 Used in television circuits
 Used in FM transmitters
Pliers
 Used as direct current restorers
 Used to suppress distortions
 Used as voltage multiplier
 Used for protection of amplifiers
 Used as test equipment
 Used as stabilizer of baseline
Voltage limiter and multiplier
With wave shaping circuits such as clippers and clampers, diodes are used to build other circuits such as limiters and voltage multipliers, which we will talk about in this chapter. Diodes also have another important application known as rectifiers, which will be discussed later.
Limiters
Another name that we often come across while going through these clippers and clampers is the limiter circuit. A limiter circuit can be understood as one which prevents the output voltage from exceeding a predetermined value.
This is more or less a limiter circuit which does not allow the value of the signal to be exceeded. In fact, clipping can be called an extreme limit. Therefore, the limitation can be understood as smooth clipping.
The following image shows some examples of limiter circuits 
The performance of a circuit limiter can be understood from its transfer characteristic curve. Here is an example of such a curve.
The lower and upper limits are specified in the graph which indicates the characteristics of the limiter. Output voltagefor such a graph can be understood as
$$ V_ {0} = L _ {}, KV_ {i}, L_ {+} $$
Where
$$ L _ {} = V_ {i} leq frac {L _ {}} {k} $$
$$ KV_ {i} = frac {L _ { }} {k}
$$ L _ {+} = V_ {i} geq frac {L _ {+}} {K} $$
Types of limiters
There are some types of limiters such as

Singlepole limiter  This circuit limits the signal in one direction.

Bipolar Limiter  This circuit limits the signal in two ways.

Soft Limiter  The output can change in this circuit during even a slight change in the input.

Hard Limiter  The output will not easily change with the change of the input signal.

Single Limiter  This circuit uses a diode for limiting.

Double Limiter  This circuit uses two diodes for theimitate.
Voltage Multipliers
There are applications where the voltage needs to be multiplied in some cases. This can be done easily with the help of a simple circuit using diodes and capacitors. If the voltage is doubled, such a circuit is called a voltage doubler. It can be extended to make voltage tripler or voltage quadruple or so on to get high DC voltages.
To better understand, consider a circuit that multiplies the voltage by a factor of 2. This circuit can be called a voltage doubler . The following figure shows the circuit of a voltage doubler.
The input voltage applied will be an AC signal which is shown below the form a sine wave as shown in the figure below.
Operation
The voltage multiplier circuit can be understood by analyzing each half cycle of the input signal. Each cycle makes diodes and capacitors work in a different way. Let's try to figure this out.
During the first positive half cycle  When the input signal is applied, the capacitor $ C_ {1} $ is charged and the diode $ D_ {1} $ is forward polarized. While the diode $ D_ {2} $ is reverse biased and the capacitor $ C_ {2} $ receives no charge. This causes the output $ V_ {0} $ to be $ V_ {m} $
This can be understood from
Thus, during 0 to $ pi $, the output voltage produced will be $ V_ {max} $. The capacitor $ C_ {1} $ is charged through the forward biased diode $ D_ {1} $ to give the output, while $ C_ {2} $ does not charge. This voltage appears at the output.
During the negated half cyclef  After that, when the negative half cycle arrives, the $ D_ {1} $ diode is reverse biased and the $ D_ {2} $ diode is forward biased. The diode $ D_ {2} $ receives the charge through the capacitor $ C_ {2} $ which charges during this process. The current then flows through the capacitor $ C_ {1} $ which discharges. It can be understood from
So during $ pi $ at $ 2 pi $, the voltage across capacitor $ C_ {2} $ will be $ V_ {max} $. While capacitor $ C_ {1} $ which is fully charged, tends to discharge. Now, the voltages of the two capacitors appear together at the output, which is $ 2V_ {max} $. So, the output voltage $ V_ {0} $ during this cycle is $ 2V_ {max} $
During the next positive half cycle  The capacitor $ C_ {1} $ is charged from the power supply and the diode $ D_ {1} $ is polarizedforward. The capacitor $ C_ {2} $ maintains the charge because it cannot find a way to discharge and the diode $ D_ {2} $ is reverse biased. Now, the output voltage $ V_ {0} $ of this cycle gets the voltages of the two capacitors that appear together at the output, that is $ 2V_ {max} $.
During the next negative half cycle  The next negative half cycle causes the capacitor $ C_ {1} $ to discharge again of its full charge and the diode $ D_ {1} $ to reverse the polarization while $ D_ {2} $ forward and $ C_ {2} $ capacitor to charge more to maintain its voltage. Now the output voltage $ V_ {0} $ of this cycle gets the voltages of the two capacitors that appear together at the output, that is $ 2V_ {max} $.
Therefore, the output voltage $ V_ {0} $ is maintained at $ 2V_ {max} $ throughout its operation, which makes the circuit a voltage doubler.
The tensi multipliersthey are mainly used where high DC voltages are required. For example, cathode ray tubes and the computer screen.
Voltage divider
While diodes are used to multiply voltage, a set of series resistors can be turned into a small network to .
The
Let's try to find out how a
If we try to draw an expression for the output voltage,
$$ V_ {i} = it eft ( R_ {1} + R_ {2} right) $$
$$ i= frac {V {i}} {left (R_ {1} + R_ {2} right)} $$
$$ V_ {0} = i: R_ {2} rightarrow: i: = frac {V_ {0}} {R_ {2}} $$
By comparing the two,
$$ frac {V_ {0}} {R_ {2}} = frac {V_ {i}} {left (R_1 + R_ {2} right)} $$
$$ V_ {0} = frac {V_ {i}} {left (R_1 + R_ { 2} right)} R_ {2} $$
This is the expression to get the value of the output voltage. Therefore, the output voltage is
Let's take an example problem to learn more about
Example
Calculate the output voltage of a network having an input voltage of 10v with two series resistors 2kΩ and 5kΩ.
The output voltage $ V_ {0} $ is given by
$$ V_ {0} =frac {V_ {i}} {left (R_1 + R_ {2} right)} R_ {2} $$
$$ = frac {10 } {left (2 + 5 right) k Omega} 5k Omega $$
$ $ = frac {10} {7} times 5 = frac { 50} {7} $$
$$ = 7.142 v $$
The output voltage $ V_0 $ for the problem above is 7.14v
Electronic Circuits  Diode as Switch
The diode is a two terminal PN junction which can be used in forward being ON and the reverse being OFF state.
Electrical switches on switches mechanical
LElectrical switches are a preferred choice over mechanical switches for the following reasons 
 Mechanical switches are prone to l oxidation, unlike switches electric.
 Mechanical switches have movable contacts.
 They are more subject to constraints and constraints than electrical switches.
 Wear and tear on mechanical switches often affect their operation.
Therefore, an electrical switch is more useful than a mechanical switch.
Operation of the diode as a switch
Whenever a specified voltage is exceeded, the resistance of the diode increases, which makes the diode reverse biased and acts as an open switch . Whenever the applied voltage is lower than the reference voltage, the resistance of the diode decreases, making the diode biased towardst, and it acts as a closed switch.
The following circuit explains the diode acting as a switch.
A switching diode has a PN junction in which the P region is lightly doped and the N region is heavily doped. The above circuit symbolizes that the diode turns on when the positive voltage bias the forward diode, and it turns off when the negative voltage bias the diode.
Ringtone
Since forward current flows up to this point, with a sudden reverse voltage, the reverse current flows for an instance rather than immediately extinguishing. The higher the leakage current, the greater the loss. The reverse current flow when the diode is reverse biased suddenly, can sometimes create some oscillations, called RING .
This ringing condition is a loss and therefore should be minimized. For this faire, we must understand the switching times of the diode.
Switching time of the diodes
By changing the polarization conditions, the diode undergoes a transient response . The response of a system to any sudden change in an equilibrium position is called a transient response.
The sudden change from forward bias to reverse and from reverse bias to forward bias affects the circuit. The time required to respond to such sudden changes is the important criterion in defining the efficiency of an electrical switch.

The time taken for the diode to recover to its stable state is called recovery time .

The time interval taken by the diode to go from the reverse biased state to the forward biased state is called Recovery time before. ($ t_ {fr} $)

The time interval taken by the diode pTo change from the forward biased state to the reverse biased state is called Reverse recovery time. ($ t_ {en} $)
To understand this more clearly, let's try to analyze what happens after voltage is applied to a PN switching diode.
Concentration of carriers
The concentration of minority charge carriers decreases exponentially as seen far from the junction. When voltage is applied, due to the forward bias condition, the majority carriers on one side move to the other. They become minority carriers on the other side. This concentration will be more at the junction.
For example, if type N is considered, the excess of holes that enter type N after application of the direct bias adds to the minority carriers already present of N type material.
Consider some notations.
 The carriers majoritaries in Ptype (holes) = $ P_ {po} $
 Majority carriers in type N (electrons) = $ N_ {no} $
 Minority carriers in type P (electrons) = $ N_ {po} $
 Majority carriers of type N (holes) = $ P_ {no} $
During the forward polarization condition  Minority carriers are closer to the junction and less far from the junction. The graphic below explains this.
Excess minority carrier tax in Ptype = $ P_nP_ {no} $ with $ p_ {no} $ (steadystate value)
Overload of the minority operator in Ntype = $ N_pN_ {po} $ with $ N_ {po} $ (steadystate value)
During reverse bias condition  Majority carriers do not conduct current through the junction and therefore do not participate in the current state. Switching diode turns oncarries as a short circuit for a reverse instance.
Minority carriers will cross the junction and conduct the current, which is called reverse saturation current . The following graph represents the condition during reverse bias.
In the figure below Above, the dotted line represents the equilibrium values and the solid lines represent the actual values. Since the current due to the minority charge carriers is large enough to be conductive, the circuit will be turned on until this charge excess is removed.
The time it takes for the diode to change from forward bias to reverse bias is called Reverse Recovery Time ($ t_ {rr} $) . The following graphics explain in detail the switching times of the diodes.
From
At $ t_ {1} $, the diode is suddenly brought to the OFF state from the ON state; it is known as storage time. The storage time is the time required to remove the excess minority carrier load. The negative current flowing from the Ntype material to the P is a considerable amount during the storage time. This negative current is,
$$  I_R = frac {V_ {R}} {R} $$
The next period is the transition time ”(from $ t_2 $ to $ t_3 $)
The transition time is the time required for the diode to fully open circuit. After $ t_3 $, the diode will be in a steady state reverse bias state. Before $ t_1 $ diode is in direct bias condition in steady state.
Thus, the time required to reach fully open circuit condition is
$$ Inverse:: recovery:: time left (t_ {rr} right) = Storage:: time left (T_ {s} right) + Transition:: time left (T_ {t} right) $$
While to switch to ON condition from OFF, it takes less time called Recovery time before . The reverse recovery time is greater than the forward recovery time. A diode works as a better switch if this reverse recovery time is reduced.
Definitions
Let's just go over the definitions of the time periods discussed.

Storage time  The time that the diode remains in the conduction state even in the reverse biased state, is called Storage time .

Transition time  The time elapsed to return to the nonconduction state, i.e. the bias inverse to steady state, is called Transition time .

Reverse recovery time  The time required for the diode to switch from forward bias to reverse bias is called Reverse recovery time .

Forward recovery time  The time it takes for the diode to go from reverse bias to forward bias is called time recovery before .
Factors that affect diode switching times
There are few factors that affect diode switching times, such as

Diode capacitance  The capacitance of the PN junction changes depending on the bias conditions.

Diode Resistance  The resistance offered by the diode to change its state.

Doping Concentration  The level of diode doping affects the switching times of the diode.

Depletion width  Plus the width of the depleted layerThe narrower the switching speed is. A Zener diode has a narrower depletion region than an avalanche diode, which makes the for mer a better switch.
Applications
There are many applications where diode switching circuits are used, such as 
High speed rectifier circuits High speed switching circuits RF receivers General applications Consumer applications Automotive applications Telecom applications etc. Electronic Circuits  Power Supplies
This chapter provides a new start for another section of diode circuits. This gives an introduction to the feeding circuits that we encounter in our daily life. Any electronic device consists of a power supply unit that supplies the required amount of alAC or DC imentation to
Need for power supplies
There are many small sections present in electronic devices such as computer, television, cathode ray oscilloscope, etc. but not all of these sections need 230V AC power supply which we get. while others may need a 30v DC. In order to supply the required DC voltages, the incoming 230V AC power supply must be converted to pure DC for use. power supplies serve the same purpose.
A practical power supply unit looks like the following figure.
Now let's go through the different parts that make up a power supply unit.
Parts of a power supply unit
A typical power supply unit consists of the following parts.

Transformer  An input transformer for reducing the 230v AC power supply.

Rectifier  A rectifier circuit for converting the AC components present in the signal to DC components.

Smoothing  A filter circuit to smooth out variations in the rectified output.

Regulator  A voltage regulator circuit to control voltage to a desired output level.

Load  The load that uses the pure DC output of the regulated output.
Block diagram of a power supply unit
The block diagram of a regulated power supply unit is shown below below.
From the diagram above, it is obvious that the transformer is present at the initial stage. Although we have already walked through the concept of transformers in the BAS tutorialIC ELECTRONICS, let's take a look at it.
Transformer
A transformer has a primary coil to which input is given and a secondary coil from which the output is collected. These two coils are wound on a central material. Usually, an insulator forms the Core of the transformer.
The following figure shows a practical transformer.
From the figure above, it is obvious that a few notations are common. They are as follows 

$ N_ {p} $ = Number of turns in the primary winding

$ N_ {s} $ = Number of turns in the secondary winding

$ I_ {p} $ = Current flowing in the primary of the transformer

$ I_ {s} $ = Current flowing in the secondary of the transformer

$ V_ {p} $ = Voltage across transformer primary

$ V_ {s} $ = Voltage across the transformer secondary

$ phi $ = Magnetic flux present around the transformer core
Transformer in a circuit
The following figure shows how a transformer is represented in a circuit. The primary winding, the secondary winding and the transformer core are also shown in the following figure.
Therefore, when a transformer is connected in a circuit, the input power is given to the primary coil so that it produces varying magnetic values. flux with this power supply and this flux is induced in the secondary coil of the transformer, which produces the EMF variation of the variable flux. As the flow must vary, for the transferEMC from primary to secondary, a transformer always operates in AC alternating current.
Depending on the number of turns in the secondary winding, a transformer can be classified as either a Stepup or Stepdown transformer.
StepUp Transformer
When the secondary winding has more number of turns than the primary winding then the transformer is said to be a stepup transformer . Here, the induced electromagnetic force is greater than the input signal.
The figure below shows the symbol of a stepup transformer.
StepDown Transformer
When the secondary winding has a lower number of turns than the primary winding, the transformer is then considered as a stepdown transformer. Here the induced EMF is lower than the input signal.
The figure below showne the symbol of a stepdown transformer.
In our circuits of power supply, we use the Stepdown transformer , because we need to reduce the alternating current to direct current. The output of this stepdown transformer will be less powerful and it will be given as the input of the next section, called rectifier . We will discuss rectifiers in t The next chapter.
Electronic Circuits  Rectifiers
Whenever there is a need to convert AC power in DC, a rectifier circuit comes to the rescue. A simple PN junction diode acts as a rectifier. The forward and reverse bias conditions of the diode perform the rectification.
Rectification
An alternating current has the property of changing state continuously. This is understood by observing the sine wave by which an alternating current is indicated.nte in its positive direction goes to a positive peak value, reduces from there to normal and returns to the negative part and reaches the negative peak and again returns to normal and continues.
During its journey through the formation of the wave, we can observe that the 'wave goes in positive and negative directions. In fact, it completely changes and hence the name of alternating current.
But during the rectification process, this alternating current is changed to direct current DC . The wave flowing in both positive and negative direction till then, will get its direction limited only to positive direction, when it will be converted to DC. Therefore, current is allowed to flow only in positive direction. positive direction and resisted in negative direction, just like in the figure below.
The circuit thati performs the rectification is called Rectifier circuit . A diode is used as a rectifier, to build a rectifier circuit.
Types of rectifier circuits
There are two main types of rectifier circuits, depending on their output. These are
 Halfwave rectifier
 Fullwave rectifier
A halfwave rectifier The Circuit only rectifies positive half cycles of the input power supply whereas a Fullw rectifier circuit with rectifies positive and negative half cycles of the input power supply.
Halfwave rectifier
The name halfwave rectifier itself indicates that rectification is only performed for half of the cycle. The AC signal is given by an input transformer which increases or decreases depending on the use. Most of the time, a stepdown transformer is used in rectifier circuits, in order to reducethe input voltage.
The input signal given to the transformer passes through a PN junction diode which acts as a rectifier. This diode converts AC voltage to pulsed DC current only for positive half cycles of the input. A load resistor is connected at the end of the circuit. The figure below shows the circuit of a halfwave rectifier.
How it works 'un HWR
The input signal is given to the transformer which reduces the voltage levels. The output of the transformer is given to the diode which acts as a rectifier. This diode lights up (leads ) during positive half cycles of the input signal. Therefore, a current will flow in the circuit and there will be a voltage drop across the load resistor. The diode goes out (does not conduct) for negative half cycles and therefore the output for negative half cycles will be, $ i_ {D} = $ 0 and $ V_ {o} = $ 0.
Therefore, the output is present only for positive half cycles of the input voltage (neglecting the reverse leakage current). This output will pulse through the load resistor.
Waveforms of an HWR
The input and output waveforms are as shown in the following figure.
Hence the output of a halfwave rectifier is pulsed direct current. 'analyze the above circuit including some values that are obtained from the output of half wave rectifier.
Analysis of half wave rectifier
To analyze a circuit halfwave rectifier, consider the equation of the input voltage.
$$ v_ {i} = V_ {m} sin omega t $$
$ V_ {m} $ is the maximum value of the supply voltage.
Let us assume that the diode is ideal.
 Theresistance in forward direction, i.e. in ON state is $ R_f $.
 The resistance in the reverse direction, i.e. in the OFF state is $ R_r $.
The current i in the diode or the load resistor $ R_L $ is given by
$ i = I_m sin omega t quad for quad 0 leq omega t leq 2 pi $
$ i = 0 quad quad quad quad for quad pi leq omega t leq 2 pi $
Where
$$ I_m = frac {V_m} {R_f + R_L} $$
DC output current
The average current $ I_ {dc} $ is given by
$$ I_ {dc} = frac {1} {2 pi} int_ {0} ^ {2 pi} i: d left (omega t right) $$
$$ = frac {1} {2 pi} left [int_ {0} ^ { pi} I_m sin omega t: d left (omega t right) + int_ {0} ^ {2 pi} 0: d left (omega t right) right] $ $
$$ = frac {1} {2 pi} left [I_m left { cos omega t right} _ {0} ^ {pi} right] $$
$$ = frac {1} {2 pi} left [I_m left {+1  left (1 right) right} right] = frac {I_m} {pi} = 0.318 I_m $$
By replacing the value of $ I_m $, we get
$$ I_ {dc} = frac {V_m} {pi left (R_f + R_L right)} $$
If $ R_L >> R_f $, then
$ $ I_ {dc} = frac {V_m} {pi R_L} = 0.318 frac {V_m} {R_L} $$
DC output voltage
DC output voltage is given by
$$ V_ {dc} = I_ {dc} times R_L = frac {I_m} {pi} times R_L $$
$$ = frac {V_m times R_L} {left pi (R_f + R_L right)} = frac {V_m} {left pi {1 + left (R_f / R_L right) right}} $$
If $ R_L >> R_f $, then
$$ V_ {dc} = frac {V_m} {pi} = 0.318 V_m $$
RMS current and voltage
The value of the RMS current is given by
$$ I_ {rms} = left [frac {1} {2 pi} int_ {0} ^ {2pi} i ^ {2} d left (omega t right) right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} $$
$$ I_ {rms} = left [frac {1} {2 pi} int_ {0} ^ {2 pi} I_ {m} ^ {2} sin ^ {2} omega t: d left (omega t right) + frac {1 } {2 pi} int _ {pi} ^ {2 pi} 0: d left (omega t right) right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} $$
$$ = left [frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {2 pi} int_ {0} ^ {pi} left (frac {1  cos 2 omega t} {2} right ) d left (omega t right) right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} $$
$$ = left [frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {4 pi} left {left (omega t right)  frac {sin 2 omega t} {2} right} _ {0} ^ {pi} right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} $$
$$ = left [frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {4 pi} left {pi  0  frac {sin 2 pi} {2} + sin 0 right } right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} $$
$$ = left [frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {4 pi} right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} = frac {I_m} {2} $$
$$ = frac {V_m} {2 left (R_f + R_L right)} $$
The RMS voltage across the load is
$ $ V_ {rms} = I_ {rms} times R_L = frac {V_m times R_L} {2 left (R_f + R_L right)} $$
$$ = frac {V_m} {2 left {1 + left (R_f / R_L right) right} } $$
If $ R_L >> R_f $, then
$$ V_ {rms} = frac {V_m} {2} $$
Efficiency rectifier
Any circuit must be efficient in its work for better performance. To calculate the efficiency of a halfwave rectifier, one must take into account the ratio of the output power to the input power.
The rectifier efficiency is defined as
$$ eta = frac {dcpower:: delivered:: to:: the:: load} {acinput:: power:: from:: transformer:: secondary} = frac {P_ {ac}} {P_ {dc}} $$
Now
$$ P_ {dc} = left ({I_ {dc}} right) ^ 2 times R_L = frac {I_m R_L} {pi ^ 2} $$
Further
$$ P_ {ac} = P_a + P_r $ $
Where
$ P_a = power: dissipated: at: the: junction: of: diode $
$$ = I_ {rms} ^ {2} times R_f = frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {4} times R_f $$
And
$$ P_r = power: dissipated: in: le: load: resistance $$
$$ = I_ {rms} ^ {2} times R_L = frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {4} times R_L $$
$$ P_ {ac} = frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {4} times R_f + frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {4} times R_L = frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {4} left (R_f + R_L right) $ $
From the two expressions of $ P_ {ac} $ and $ P_ {dc} $, we can write
$$ eta = frac {I_ {m} ^ {2} R_L / pi ^ 2} {I_ {m} ^ {2} left (R_f + R_L right) / 4} = frac {4} {pi ^ 2} frac {R_L} {left (R_f + R_L right)} $$
$$ = frac {4} {pi ^ 2} frac {1} {left {1 + left (R_f / R_L right) right}} = frac {0.406} {left {1 + left (R_f / R_L right) right}} $$
Percentage of 'rectifier efficiency
$$ eta = frac {40.6} {lbrace1 + lgroup: R_ {f} / R_ {L} rgroup rbrace} $$
In theory, the maximum value of the rectifier efficiency of a halfwave rectifier is 40.6% when $ R_ {f} / R_ {L} = 0 $
In addition, the efficiency can be calculated as follows
$$ eta = frac {P_ {dc}} {P_ {ac}} = frac {left (I_ {dc} right) ^ 2R_L} {left (I_ {rms } right) ^ 2R_L} = frac {left (V_ {dc} / R_L right) ^ 2R_L} {left (V_ {rms} / R_L right) ^ 2R_L} = frac {left (V_ {dc} right) ^ 2} {left (V_ {rms} right) ^ 2} $$
$$ = frac {left (V_m / pi right) ^ 2} {left (V_m / 2 right) ^ 2} = frac { 4} {pi ^ 2} = 0.406 $$
$$ = 40.6% $$
Ripple factor
The rectified output contains some amount of CA component present in it, in the form of ripples. This is understood by observing the output waveform of the half wave rectifier. To get a pure DC, wemust have some idea about this component.
The ripple factor gives the ripple of the rectified output. It is noted y . This can be defined as the ratio of the rms value of the ac component of the voltage or current to the direct value or average value.
$$ gamma = frac {undulation: voltage} {dc: voltage} = frac {rms: value: of: accomponent} {dcvalue: of: wave} = frac {left (V_r right) _ { rms}} {v_ {dc}} $$
Here,
$$ left (V_r right) _ {rms} = sqrt {V_ {rms} ^ {2}  V_ {dc} ^ {2}} $ $
Therefore,
$$ gamma = frac {sqrt {V_ {rms} ^ {2} V_ {dc} ^ {2}}} {V_ {dc}} = sqrt {left (frac {V_ {rms}} {V_ {dc}} right) ^ 21} $$
Now
$$ V_ {rms} = left [frac {1} {2 pi} int_ {0} ^ {2 pi} V_ {m} ^ {2} sin ^ 2 omega t: d left (omega t right ) right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} $$
$$ = V_m left [frac {1} {4 pi} int_ { 0} ^ {pi} left (1  cos2: omega t right) d left (omega t right) right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} = frac {V_m} {2} $$
$$ V_ {dc} = V_ {av} = frac {1} {2 pi} left [int_ {0} ^ {pi} V_m sin omega t: d left (omega t right ) + int_ {0} ^ {2 pi} 0.d left (omega t right) right] $$
$$ = frac {V_m} {2 pi} left [ cos omega t right] _ {0} ^ {pi} = frac {V_m} {pi} $$
$$ gamma = sqrt {left [left {frac {left (V_m / 2 right)} {left (V_m / pi right)} right} ^ 21 right]} = sqrt {left {left (frac {pi} {2} right) ^ 21 right}} = 1.21 $$
The factor d 'ripple is also defined as
$$ gamma = frac {left (I_r right) _ {rms}} {I_ {dc}} $$
As the value of the factor ripple present in a half wave rectifier is 1.21, this means the amount of ac current present in the output is 121 $% $ of the dc tension
Regulation
The current passing through the load may vary depending on the load resistance. But even under such conditions, we would expect our output voltage which is taken across this load resistor to be constant. So our voltage should be regulated even under different load conditions.
The variation of the DC output voltage with the change of the DC load current is defined as Regulation . The percentage of regulation is calculated as follows ws.
$$ Percentage: Regulation = frac {V_ {no: load} V_ {full: load}} {V_ {full: load}} times 100% $$
More the lower the percentage of regulation, the better the power will be. An ideal diet will have zero percent regulation.
Transformer utilization factor
The DC power to be supplied to the load, in a rectifier circuit, decides the rating of the transformer used in a circuit.
Thus, thetransformer duty cycle is defined as
$$ TUF = frac {dcpower: to: be: delivery: to: the: load} {acrating: of: the: transformer: secondary} $$
$$ = frac {P_ {dc}} {P_ {ac left (nominal right)}} $$
According to transformer theory, the nominal voltage of the secondary will be
$$ V_m / sqrt {2} $$
The real RMS voltage that crosses it will be
$$ I_m / 2 $$
Therefore
$$ TUF = frac {left (I_m / pi right) ^ 2 times R_L} {left (V_m / sqrt {2} right) times left (I_m / 2 right)} $$
But
$$ V_m = I_m left (R_f + R_L right) $$
So
$$ TUF = frac {left (I_m / pi right) ^ 2 times R_L} {left {I_m left (R_f + R_L right) / sqrt {2} right} times left (I_m / 2 right)} $$
$$ = frac {2 sqrt {2}} {pi ^ 2} times frac {R_L} {left (R_f + R_L right)} $$
$$ = frac {2 sqrt {2}} {pi ^ 2} = 0.287 $$
Tension peak reverse
A diode connected in reverse bias must operate at a controlled voltage level. If this safety voltage is exceeded, the diode is damaged. It is therefore very important to know this maximum voltage.
The maximum reverse voltage that the diode can withstand without being destroyed is called the peak reverse voltage . In short, PIV.
Here, the PIV is nothing but Vm
Form factor
This can be understood as the mathematical average of the absolute values of all the points of the waveform. The form factor is defined as the ratio of R.M.S. value at the mean value e. It is noted F.
$$ F = frac {rms: value} {average: value} = frac {I_m / 2} {I_m / pi} = frac {0.5 I_m} {0.318I_m} = 1.57 $$
Crest factor
The value of the peak in the ripple must be considered to know how effective the rectification is. TheCrest factor value is also an important consideration. The crest factor is defined as the ratio of the peak value to the R.M.S. value.
Therefore
$$ Peak Factor = frac {Peak: value} {rms: value} = frac {V_m} {V_m / 2} = 2 $$
All these parameters are important to take into account when designing a rectifier.
Electronic Circuits  Full Wave Rectifiers
A rectifier circuit which rectifies both positive and negative half cycles can be called a full wave rectifier because it rectifies the full cycle. The construction of a full wave rectifier can be of two types. These are
 Center tap full wave rectifier
 Full wave rectifier bridge
Both have their advantages and disadvantages. Now let's move on to their construction and work with their waveforms to find out which one is better and why.
Center tap full wave rectifier
A rectifier circuit in which the transformer the secondary is operated to obtain the desired output voltage, alternately using two diodes, to rectify the full cycle is called Circuit center tap full wave rectifier . The transformer is centered here unlike the other cases.
The characteristics of a center tap transformer are 

Tapping is done by pulling a lead at the midpoint of the secondary winding. This winding is

The voltage at the midpoint of the tap is zero. This forms a neutral point.

The center thread provides two separate output voltages that are equal in magnitude but opposite in polarity.

A number of bands can be drawn to obtain a in different voltage levels.
Center tap transformer with two rectifier diodes is used in the construction of a center tap full wave rectifier . The circuit diagram of a center tap full wave rectifier is shown below.
How a CTFWR works
The operation of a center tap full wave rectifier can be understood from the figure above.When the positive half cycle of the input voltage is applied, point M at the secondary of the transformer becomes positive with respect to point N. This makes the diode $ D_1 $ forward biased. Therefore, the current $ i_1 $ flows through the load resistor from A to B. We now have the positive half cycles in the output
When the negative half cycle of the input voltage is applied, the point M at Le transformer secondary becomesnegative with respect to point N. This makes diode $ D_2 $ forward biased. Therefore, the current $ i_2 $ flows through the load resistor from A to B. We now have the positive half cycles in the output, even during the negative half cycles of the input.
Shapes d 'wave from CT FWR
The input and output waveforms of the center tap full wave rectifier are as follows.
From the above figure, it is obvious that the output is obtained for the positive and negative half cycles. We also observe that the output across the load resistor is in the same direction for both half cycles.
Reverse peak volts
As the maximum voltage across the secondary half winding is $ V_m $, the entire secondary voltage appears through the nonc diodeunductive. Therefore, the peak reverse voltage is twice the maximum voltage across the semisecondary winding, that is,
$$ PIV = 2V_m $$
Disadvantages
There are few disadvantages for a center tap full wave rectifier like 
 The location of the center plug is difficult
 The DC output voltage is low
 The PIV of the diodes must be high
The next type of full wave rectifier circuit is the Full wave bridge rectifier circuit .
Full wave bridge rectifier
C ' is such a full wave rectifier circuit which uses four diodes connected in the form of a bridge in order not only to produce the output during input cycle, but also to eliminate the disadvantages of the center tap full wave rectifier circuit.
There is no need for a central transformer tap in this circuit. Four app diodesElements $ D_1 $, $ D_2 $, $ D_3 $ and $ D_4 $ are used in building a bridge type network such that two of the diodes conduct for half a cycle and two conduct for the other half cycle of the input power supply. The circuit of a full wave bridge rectifier is as shown in the following figure.
Operation of a full wave bridge rectifier
The full wave rectifier with four diodes connected in bridge is used to obtain better full wave output response. When the positive half cycle of the input power supply is given, point P becomes positive with respect to point Q . This makes diodes $ D_1 $ and $ D_3 $ forward biased while $ D_2 $ and $ D_4 $ are reverse biased. These two diodes will now be in series with the load resistor.
The following figure shows this with the flux of conventional current in theth circuit.
From where the diodes $ D_1 $ and $ D_3 $ conduct during the half cycle positive of the input power supply to produce the output along the load resistor. As two diodes are working to produce the output, the voltage will be twice the output voltage of the full wave rectifier plug center.
When the negative half cycle of the input power is given, point P becomes negative with respect to point Q . This makes the diode $ D_1 $ and $ D_3 $ reverse biased while $ D_2 $ and $ D_4 $ are forward biased. These two diodes will now be in series with the load resistor.
The following figure shows this with the conventional current flow in the circuit.
Hence the diodes $ D_ {2} $ and $ D_ { 4} $ drive during the negative hal f cycle of the ent power supplyoutput to produce the output along the load resistor. Here too, two diodes work to produce the output voltage. The current flows in the same direction as during the positive half cycle of the input.
FWR Bridge Waveforms
The input and output waveforms of the center tap full wave rectifier are as follows.
From the figure above, it is obvious that the output is obtained for positive and negative half cycles. It is also observed that the output across the load resistor is in the same direction for both half cycles.
Reverse voltage of peak
Whenever two of the diodes are parallel to the secondary of the transformer, the maximum secondary voltage across the transformer appears at the nonconductive diodes, which makes the PIV of the rectifier circuit. where the peak reverse v oltage is the maximum voltage across the secondary winding, i.e.
$$ PIV = V_m $$
Advantages
There are many advantages to a full wave bridge rectifier, such as 
 No need for central tapping.
 The DC output voltage is twice that of the Center Tapper FWR.
 PIV of the diodes is half the value of the FWR CenterTapper.
 Circuit design is easier with better efficiency.
Now let's analyze the characteristics of a full wave rectifier.
Full wave rectifier analysis
In order to analyze a full wave rectifier circuit, let suppose that the input voltage $ V_ {i} $ as,
$$ V_ {i} = V_m sin omega t $$
The current $ i_1 $ through the load resistor $ R_L $ is given by
$$ i_1 = I_m sin omega t quad for quad0 leq omega t leq pi $$
$$ i_1 = quad0 quad quad quad for quad pi leq omega t leq 2 pi $$
Where
$$ I_m = frac {V_m } {R_f + R_L} $$
$ R_f $ being the resistance of the diode in ON condition.
Likewise, the current $ i_2 $ flowing through the diode $ D_2 $ and the load resistance RL is given by,
$$ i_2 = quad: 0 quad quad quad for quad 0 leq omega t leq pi $$
$$ i_2 = I_m sin omega t quad for quad pi leq omega t leq 2 pi $$
The total current through $ R_L $ is the sum of the two currents $ i_1 $ and $ i_2 $ ie
$$ i = i_1 + i_2 $$
DC or Average current
The average value of the output current that a DC ammeter will indicate is given by
$$ I_ {dc} = frac {1} {2 pi} int_ {0} ^ {2 pi} i_1: d left (omega t right) + frac {1} {2 pi} int_ {0} ^ {2 pi} i_2: d left (omega t right) $$
$$= frac {1} {2 pi int_ {0} ^ {pi}} I_m sin omega t: d left (omega t right) + 0 + 0 + $$
$$ frac {1} {2 pi} int_ {0} ^ {2 pi} I_m sin omega t: d left (omega t right) $$
$ $ = frac {I_m} {pi} + frac {I_m} {pi} = frac {2I_m} {pi} = 0.636I_m $$
This is double of the value of a halfwave rectifier.
DC Output voltage
The DC output voltage across the load is given by
$$ V_ {dc} = I_ {dc} times R_L = frac {2I_mR_L} {pi} = 0.636I_mR_L $$
So the DC output voltage is twice that of a half wave rectifier.
RMS current
The RMS current value is given by
$$ I_ {rms} = left [frac {1} {pi} int_ {0 } ^ {pi} t ^ 2: d left (omega t right) right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} $$
Since the current is the same shape in both halves
$$ = left [frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {pi} int_{0} ^ {pi} sin ^ 2 omega t: d left (omega t right) right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} $$
$$ = frac {I_m} {sqrt {2}} $$
Rectifier efficiency
The rectifier efficiency is defined as
$$ eta = frac {P_ {dc}} {P_ {ac}} $$
Now,
$$ P_ {dc} = left (V_ {dc} right) ^ 2 / R_L = left (2V_m / pi right ) ^ 2 $$
And,
$$ P_ {ac} = left (V_ {rms} right) ^ 2 / R_L = left (V_m / sqrt {2} right ) ^ 2 $$
Therefore,
$$ eta = frac {P_ {dc}} {P_ {ac}} = frac {left (2V_m / pi right) ^ 2} {left (V_m / sqrt {2} right) ^ 2} = frac {8} {pi ^ 2} $$
$$ = 0.812 = 81.2% $$
The rectifier efficiency can be calculated as follows 
DC output power,
$$ P_ {dc} = I_ {dc} ^ {2} R_L = frac {4I_ {m} ^ {2}} {pi ^ 2} times R_L $$
The input power AC,
$$ P_ {ac} = I_ {rms} ^ {2} left (R_f + R_L right) = frac {I_ {m} ^ {2}} {2} left (R_f + R_L right) $$
Therefore,
$$ eta = frac {4I_ {m} ^ {2} R_L / pi ^ 2} {I_ {m} ^ {2} left (R_f + R_L right) / 2} = frac {8} {pi ^ 2} frac {R_L} {left (R_f + R_L right)} $$
$$ = frac {0.812} {gauche {1 + gauche (R_f / R_L right) right}} $$
Therefore, the percentage of efficiency is
$$ = frac {0.812} {1 + left (R_f + R_L right)} $$
$$ = 81.2% quad if: R_f = 0 $$
Thus, a full wave rectifier is twice as efficient as a half wave rectifier.
Ripple factor
The form factor of the rectified output voltage of a full wave rectifier is given by
$$ F = frac {I_ {rms}} {I_ {dc}} = frac {I_m / sqrt {2}} {2I_m / pi} = 1.11 $$
The ripple factor $ gamma $ is set like (using AC circuit theory)
$$ gamma = left [left (frac {I_ {rms}} {I_ {dc}} righte) 1 right] ^ {frac {1} {2}} = left (F ^ 2 1 right) ^ {frac {1} {2}} $$
$$ = left [left (1.11 right) ^ 2 1 right] ^ frac {1} {2} = 0.48 $$
This is a big improvement by compared to the ripple factor of the halfwave rectifier which was 1.21
Regulation
The DC output voltage is given by
$$ V_ {dc} = frac {2I_mR_L} {pi} = frac {2V_mR_L} {pi left (R_f + R_L right)} $$
$$ = frac {2V_m} {pi} left [1 frac {R_f} {R_f + R_L} right] = frac {2V_m} {pi} I_ {dc} R_f $$
Factor d ' using transformer
The TUF of a half wave rectifier is 0.287
There are two secondary windings in a center tap rectifier and therefore the TUF of the full wave rectifier centered is
$$ left (TUF right) _ {avg} = frac {P_ {dc}} {VA: rating: of: a: a: transformer} $$
$$ = frac{left (TUF right) _p + left (TUF right) _s + left (TUF right) _s} {3} $$
$$ = frac {0.812 + 0.287 + 0.287} {3} = 0.693 $$
HalfWave vs Full Wave Rectifier
After having gone through all the values of the various parameters of the full wave rectifier, let's just try to compare and contrast the characteristics of half wave and full wave rectifiers.
Terms  Halfwave rectifier  FWR centered  Bridge FWR 
Number of diodes  $ 1 $  $ $ 2  $ 4 $ 
Transformer tapping  $ No $  $ Yes $  $ No $ 
Peak reverse voltage  $ V_m $  $ 2V_m $  $ V_m $ 
Efficiencymaximum  $ 40.6% $  $ 81.2% $  $81.2%$ 
Average current / cc  $ I_m / pi $  $ 2I_m / pi $  $ 2I_m / pi $ 
DC voltage  $ V_m / pi $  $ 2V_m / pi $  $ 2V_m / pi $ 
Current RMS  $ I_m / 2 $  $ I_m / sqrt {2} $  $ I_m / sqrt {2} $ 
Ripple factor  $ 1.21 $  $ 0.48 $  $ 0.48 $ 
Output frequency  $ f_ {in} $  $ 2f_ {in} $  $ 2f_ {in} $ 
Electronic circuits  Filters
The power supply block diagram clearly explains that a filter circuit is required after the rectifier circuit. A rectifier helps convert pulsed alternating current to direct current, which flows only in one direction. So far we have seen different types of rectifier circuits.
The soAll of these rectifier circuits contain a certain ripple factor. We have also observed that the ripple factor of a half wave rectifier is higher than that of a full wave rectifier.
Why do we need filters?
The ripple in the signal indicates the presence of some AC components. This AC component must be completely removed in order to get pure DC output. So, we need a circuit that smooths the rectified output to a pure DC signal.
A filter circuit is one that removes the AC component present in the rectified output and allows the dc component to reach the load.
The following figure shows the functionality of a filter circuit.
A filter circuit is built using two main components, the inductor and the capacitor. We have already studied in theBasic Electronics tutorial that
Let's try to build a few filters, using these two components.
Series inductor filter
As an inductor allows direct current and blocks alternating current, a filter called Series inductor filter can be built by connecting the inductor in series, between the rectifier and the load. The figure below shows the circuit of a series inductor filter.
The output rectified when passed through this filter, the inductor blocks the ac components present in the signal, in order to provide a pure direct current. It is a simple primary filter.
Shunt Capacitor Filter
As a capacitor lets pass thehe alternating current and blocks direct current, a filter called Shunt Capacitor Filter can be constructed using a capacitor, connected in shunt, as shown in the following figure.
The output rectified when passed through this filter, components AC components present in the signal are grounded through the capacitor which allows the AC components. The remaining DC components present in the signal are collected at the output.
The types of filters mentioned above are built using an inductor or a capacitor. Now let's try to use both to create a better filter. They are combinatorial filters.
LC filter
A filter circuit can be built using both inductor and capacitor in order to get better output where the inductor and capacitor returns pcan be used. The figure below shows the wiring diagram of an LC filter.
With the rectified output when given to this circuit, the inductor passes the DC components through, blocking the AC components in the signal. Now from that signal, few extra AC components, if any, are grounded so that we get pure DC output.
This filter is also called choke input filter as the input signal first enters the inductor. The result of this filter is better than the previous ones.
Π Filter (Pi filter)
This is another very commonly used type of filter circuit.It has a capacitor at its input and hence it is also called capacitor input filter Here, two capacitors and an inductor are connected in the form of 'a network in the form of π. A capacitor in parallel, then an inductor in series, followed by another capacitor in parallel make this circuit.
If necessary, several identical sections can also be added, as needed. The figure below shows a circuit for $ pi $ filter (Pifilter) .
How a Pi filter works
In this circuit we have a capacitor in parallel, then an inductor in series, followed by another capacitor in parallel.

Capacitor C _{ 1 }  This capacitor filter provides high reactance to the DC signal and low reactance to the AC signal. After grounding the AC components present in the signal, the signal passes to the inductor for further filtration.

Inductor L  This inductor provides low ccomponent reactancedirect current, by blocking the components in alternating current if necessary, through the capacitor C _{ 1 }.

Capacitor C _{ 2 }  Now the signal is further smoothed using this capacitor so that 'it allows any AC component present in the signal, which the inductor has failed to block.
Thus, we get the desired pure DC output to the load.
Electronic Circuits  Regulators
The next and last stage before charging, in a power supply system, is the regulator part. Now let's try to understand what a regulator is and what it does.
The part of electronics that deals with the control and conversion of electrical energy can be called power electronics . A regulator is an important device in power electronics because it controls the output power.
Need aregulator
In order for a power supply to produce a constant output voltage, regardless of input voltage variations or load current variations, a voltage regulator is required.
A voltage regulator is such a device which maintains constant output voltage, instead of any type of fluctuations in applied input voltage or any variation of current, pulled by the load. The following image gives an idea of what a practical regulator looks like.
Types of regulators
Regulators can be classified into different categories, depending on their operation and the type of connection.
Depending on the type of regulation , regulators are mainly

Line regulator  The regulator thatregulates the output voltage to be constant, despite input line variations it is called line regulator .

Charge Regulator  The regulator that sets the output voltage to be constant, despite variations in the output load, it is called charge regulator .
Depending on the type of connection , there are two types of voltage regulators. They are
 Series voltage regulator
 Shunt voltage regulator
Their arrangement in a circuit will be exactly as in the following fi figures.
Let's take a look at some other important regulator types.
Zener voltage regulator
A Zener voltage regulator is a regulator that uses a Zener diode to regulate the output voltage. We have already discussed the details regarding thea Zener diode in the BASIC ELECTRONICS tutorial.
When the Zener diode is used in failure or Zener region , the voltage across it is substantially constant for a large change in current through it. This characteristic makes the Zener diode a good voltage regulator .
The following figure shows an image of a simple Zener regulator.
The applied input voltage $ V_i $ when it is increased beyond Zener Voltage $ V_z $, then the Zener diode operates in the breakdown region and maintains a constant voltage across the The series limiting resistor $ R_s $ limits the input current.
Zener voltage regulator operation
The Zener diode keeps the voltage across it constant despite the load variations and input voltage fluctuations. We can therefore considerr 4 cases to understand the operation of a Zener voltage regulator.
Case 1  If the charge current $ I_L $ increases, then the current through the Zener diode $ I_Z $ decreases in order to maintain the current through the series resistor $ R_S $ constant. The output voltage Vo depends on the input voltage Vi and on the voltage across the series resistor $ R_S $.
This can be written
$$ V_o = V_ {in} IR_ {s} $$
Where $ I $ is constant. Therefore, $ V_o $ also remains constant.
Case 2  If the load current $ I_L $ decreases, then the current through the Zener diode $ I_Z $ increases, as the current The series resistor $ I_S $ through RS remains constant. Although the current $ I_Z $ through the Zener diode increases, it maintains a constant output voltage $ V_Z $, which keeps the charge voltage constant.
Case 3  If the input voltage $ V_i $ increases, then the current$ I_S $ through the RS series resistor increases. This increases the voltage drop across the resistor i.e. $ V_S $ increases. Although the current flowing through the Zener Diode $ I_Z $ increases with this, the voltage across the Zener Diode $ V_Z $ remains constant, keeping the output load voltage constant.
Case 4  If the input voltage decreases, the current through the series resistor decreases, which causes the current through the Zener diode $ I_Z $ to decrease. But the Zener diode keeps the output voltage constant due to its property.
Limitations of the Zener Voltage Regulator
There are some limitations for a Zener voltage regulator. They are 
 It 's less efficient for high load currents.
 Zener impedance slightly affects the output voltage.
Therefore, a Zener voltage regulator is considered effective forlow voltage applications. Now let's move on to other types of voltage regulators, which are made using transistors.
Series transistor voltage regulator
This regulator has one transistor in series with the Zener regulator and both in parallel to the load. The transistor works as a variable resistor regulating the voltage of its collector emitter to keep the output voltage constant. The figure below shows the transistor series voltage regulator.
With the input operating conditions, the current through the base of the transistor changes. This affects the voltage across the baseemitter junction of transistor $ V_ {BE} $. The output voltage is held by the Zener voltage $ V_Z $ which is constant. As the two are held equal, any change will occur. input power is indicated by the change of tenbase station of the transmitter $ V_ {BE} $.
The output voltage Vo can therefore be understood as
$$ V_O = V_Z + V_ {BE} $$
Operation of the voltage regulator in series transistor
The operation of a voltage regulator in series must be taken into account for input and load variations. If the input voltage is increased, the output voltage also increases. But this in turn decreases the voltage across the base junction of the collector $ V_ {BE} $, because the Zener voltage $ V_Z $ remains constant. Conduction decreases as resistance across the emitter collector region increases. This further increases the voltage across the collectoremitter junction VCE, thereby reducing the output voltage $ V_O $. It will be similar when the input voltage decreases.
When load changes occur, which means that if the resistance of the load decreases, increasing the currentnt of charge $ I_L $, the output voltage $ V_O $ decreases, increasing the base voltage of the transmitter $ V_ {BE} $.
As the base voltage of the emitter $ V_ {BE} $ increases, conduction increases by reducing the resistance of the emitter collector. This in turn increases the input current which compensates for the decrease in load resistance. It will be similar as the charge current increases.
Limitations of transistor series voltage regulators
Transistor series voltage regulators have the following limitations 
 The voltages $ V_ {BE} $ and $ V_Z $ are affected by the temperature rise.
 No good regulation for high currents is possible.
 Power dissipation is high.
 Power dissipation is high.
 Less efficient.
To minimize these limitations, a transistor shunt regulator is usedilized.
Transistor Shunt Voltage Regulator
A transistor shunt regulator circuit is formed by connecting a resistor in series with the input and a transistor whose base and collector are connected by a regulating Zener diode, both in parallel with the load. The figure e below shows the schematic of a transistor shunt regulator.
Transistor shunt voltage regulator operation
If the input voltage increases, the $ V_ {BE} $ and $ V_O $ also increase. But it happens initially. In fact, when $ V_ {in} $ increases, the current $ I_ {in} $ also increases. This current, when flowing through RS, causes a voltage drop $ V_S $ across the series resistor, which also increases with $ V_ {in} $. But this decreases $ V_o $. However, this decrease in $ V_o $ compensates for the initial increase by keeping it constant. By cotherefore, $ V_o $ is kept constant. If the output voltage decreases instead, the reverse occurs.
If the load resistance decreases, there should be a decrease in the output voltage $ V_o $. The current through the load increases. This decreases the base current and the collector current of the transistor. The voltage across the series resistor becomes low because the current flows strongly. The input current will be constant.
The output voltage that appears will be the difference between the applied voltage $ V_i $ and the series voltage drop $ V_s $. Therefore, the output voltage will be increased to compensate for the initial decrease and therefore kept constant. The opposite happens if the load resistance increases.
Regulators IC
Voltage regulators are now available in the form of integrated circuits (ICs). These are in short called IC regulators.
Besides the functionality of aNormal regulator, an IC regulator has properties like thermal compensation, short circuit protection and overvoltage protection which are built into the device.
Types of IC Regulators
IC Regulators can be of the following types 
 Fixed Positive Voltage Regulators
 Fixed negative voltage regulators
 Adjustable voltage regulators
 Dualtracking voltage regulators
Let's talk about it now in detail.
Fixed positive voltage regulator
The output of these regulators is fixed to a specific value and the values are positive, which means that the output voltage supplied is a positive voltage.
The most used series is 7800 series and integrated circuits will be like IC 7806, IC 7812 and IC 7815 etc. which respectively provide + 6v, + 12v and + 15v as output voltages. The figure below mobetween the IC 7810 connected to provide a fixed positive regulated output voltage of 10 V.
In the figure above, the input capacitor $ C_1 $ is used to avoid unwanted oscillations and the output capacitor $ C_2 $ acts as a line filter to improve transient response.
Fixed negative voltage regulator
The output of these regulators is fixed to a specific value and the values are negative, which means that the output voltage supplied is a negative voltage.
The most used series is 7900 series and the integrated circuits will be like IC 7906, IC 7912 and IC 7915 etc. which respectively provide 6v, 12v and 15v as output voltages. Below shows the IC 7910 connected to provide a fixed negative regulated output voltage of 10 V.
In figure above, the input capacitor $ C_1 $ is used to prevent unwanted oscillations and the output capacitor $ C_2 $ acts as a line filter to improve transient response.
Adjustable voltage regulators
An adjustable voltage regulator has three terminals IN, OUT and ADJ. The input and output terminals are common while the adjustable terminal has a variable resistor which allows the output to vary over a wide range.
The figure above shows an unregulated power supply driving a commonly used LM 317 adjustable regulator IC. The LM 317 is a positive adjustable voltage regulator threeterminal and can deliver 1.5A of load current over an adjustable output range of 1.25V to 37V.
Dualchannel voltage regulators
Un dual channel regulator is used when separate supply voltages are requiredssaries. They provide equal positive and negative output voltages. For example, RC4195 IC provides DC outputs of + 15V and 15V. This requires two unregulated input voltages such as positive the input can vary from + 18v to + 30v and the negative input can vary from 18v to 30v.
The image above shows an IC RC4195 dualchannel regulator. Adjustable dualpoint regulators are also available w hose outlets vary between two nominal limits.
Electronic Circuits  SMPS
The topics covered so far represent different sections of the power supply. Together these sections constitute the Linear power supply . This is the conventional method of obtaining direct current from the input AC power supply.
Linear power supply
The linear power supply (LPS) is the aliRegulated ment which dissipates a lot of heat in the series resistor to regulate the output voltage which has low ripple and low noise. This LPS has many applications.
A linear power supply requires larger semiconductor devices to regulate the output voltage and generate more heat, resulting in lower power efficiency. Linear power supplies have transient response times up to 100 times faster than others, which is very important in some specialist areas.
Advantages of LPS
 The power is continuous.
 The circuit is simple.
 These are reliable ystems.
 This system responds dynamically to changes in load.
 The resistances of the circuit are changed to regulate the output voltage.
 As the components operate in a linear region, the noise is low.
 The rippleis very low in the output voltage.
Disadvantages of LPS
 The transformers used are heavier and bigger.
 The heat dissipation is more important.
 The efficiency of the linear power supply is 4050%
 Power is wasted as heat in the LPS circuits.
 Only one output voltage is obtained.
We have already gone through different parts of a linear power supply. The block diagram of a linear power supply is as shown in the following figure.
Despite the above disadvantages, linear power supplies are widely used in low noise amplifiers, test equipment, control circuits. Moreover, they are also used in data acquisition and signal processing.
All power systems bornceasing simple regulation and where efficiency is not an issue, LPS circuits are used. As the electrical noise is lower, the LPS is used to power sensitive analog circuits. But to overcome the disadvantages of linear power supply system, switched mode power supply (SMPS) is used.
Switched Mode Power Supply (SMPS)
The disadvantages of LPS such as lower efficiency, need for large capacitors to reduce ripples and heavy and expensive transformers, etc. are overcome by the implementation of switching power supplies .
Operation of SMPS is simply understood knowing that the transistor used in LPS is used to control the voltage drop while the transistor in SMPS is used as a controlled switch .
Operation
The operation of SMPS can be understood by the following figure.
Let's try to understand what happens at each step of the SMPS circuit.
Entrance stage
AC 50Hz input power supply signal is given directly to the combination rectifier and filter circuit without using any transformer. This output will have many variations and the capacitance value of the capacitor should be higher to handle input fluctuations. This unregulated direct current is given to the central switching section of the SMPS.
Switching section
A fast switching device such as a Power transistor or MOSFET is used in this section, which turns on and off depending on the variations and this output is given to the primary of the transformer present in this section. The transformers used here are much smaller and larger lightweight unlike those used for the 60 Hz power supply. These are much more efficient.caces and therefore the power conversion ratio is higher.
Output stage
The final output signal of the switching section is again rectified and filtered, to obtain the required DC voltage. This is a regulated output voltage which is then given to the control circuit, which is a feedback circuit. The final output is obtained after considering the feedback signal.
Control unit
This unit is the feedback circuit which has many sections. Let us have a clear understanding about this from
The figure above explains the internal parts of a control unit. The output sensor detects the signal and connects it to the control unit. The signal is isolated from the other section so that no sudden spikes affect the circuits. A reference voltage is given as an input with the signal at theThe error amplifier which is a comparator that compares the signal with the required signal level.
By controlling the switching frequency cy the final voltage level is maintained. This is checked by comparing the data inputs to the error amplifier, the output of which helps decide whether to increase or decrease the switching frequency. The PWM oscillator produces a fixed frequency standard PWM wave.
We can get a better idea of how SMPS actually works by looking at the following figure.
SMPS is mainly used where switching of voltages isn ' is not at all a problem and where system efficiency really matters. There are few points to note regarding SMPS. They are

The SMPS circuit works by switching and therefore the voltages vary continuously.

The switching device works bynne in saturation or cutoff mode.

The output voltage is controlled by the switching time of the feedback circuit.

The switching time is adjusted by adjusting the duty cycle.

The efficiency of SMPS is high because, instead of dissipating excess energy as heat, it continually switches its input to control the output .
Disadvantages
There are some disadvantages in SMPS, like
 The noise is present due to high frequency switching.
 The circuit is complex.
 It produces electromagnetic interference.
Advantages
Advantages of SMPS include:
 The efficiency is as high as 80 to 90%
 Less heat generation; less wasted energy.
 Reduction of harmonic return in the power supply network.
 The device isis compact and small in size.
 The manufacturing cost is reduced.
 Provision to supply the required number of voltages.
Applications
There are many applications of SMPS. They are used in the motherboard of computers, mobile phone chargers, HVDC measurements, battery chargers, central power distribution, motor vehicles, consumer electronics, laptops, security systems, space stations, etc.
Types of SMPS
SMPS is Switch Mode Power Supply Circuit designed to obtain regulated DC output voltage from unregulated DC or AC voltage. There are four main types of SMPS such as
 DC to DC converter
 AC to DC converter
 Fly back Converter
 Front converter
The ACDC converting part in the input section make the difference between ACDC converter and convertDCDC weaver. The Fly back converter is used for low power applications. There are also Buck and Boost converters in the SMPS types which decrease or increase the output voltage as needed. The other type of SMPS includes selfoscillating flyback converter, Buckboost converter, Cuk, Sepic, etc.