MIS - Development process
Tutorial set 2020-11-18 04:46:36
MIS - Development Process In MIS, information is recognized as a major resource like capital and time. If this resource is to be well managed, it asks management to plan and control it, so that information becomes a vital resource for the system. The management information system needs good planning. This system should process management information and not just data processing. It should provide support for management planning, decision making and action. It must provide support to the changing needs of business management. The main challenges of implementing GIS are: Quantity, content and context of the information - how much information and exactly what should it describe. Nature of analysis and presentation - understandability of information. Availability of information - frequency, timeliness, on demand or routine, periodic or occasional, one-off or repetitive in nature, etc. Accuracy of information. Reliability of information. System security and authentication. GIS Planning The GIS design and development process must successfully address the following issues - There must be effective communication between developers and users of the system. There should be synchronization in the understanding of management, processes and IT between users as well as developers. Understanding of the information needs of those responsible for different areas ofand combining these needs into one integrated system. Creating a unified GIS covering the whole organization will lead to a more economical, faster and more integrated system, but it will increase the designMultplexity. The GIS must interact with the complex environment comprising all other subsystems of the organization "s overall information system. It is therefore extremely necessary to understand and define the requirements of GIS in the context of the organization. It has to keep pace with changing environment, changing customer demands and increasing competition. It must use the rapid development of computing capabilities in the best possible way. Cost and time to install these advanced computer systems is high, so frequent and major modifications should not be necessary. It should take care not only of users, i.e. managers, but also other stakeholders such as employees, customers and Suppliers. Once the organizational planning phase is complete, the system designer must make the following strategic decisions to achieve the GIS goals and objectives - Development Strategy - Example - a real-time online batch. System Development Strategy - The designer selects a system development approach such as operational verses, analysis of accounting verses. Resources for development - The designer must select the resources. Resources can be internal to external, custom versions, or use a package. Composition of staff - Staff should have analysts andprogrammers. Planning of the information system essentially involves - Identification of the step of the information system in the organization. Identification of the organizational IS application. Evolution of each of this application according to the established criteria of evolution. Establishment of a priority ranking for these applications. Determination of the optimal IS architecture to serve the highest priority applications.
Information system requirements The following diagram illustrates a brief overview of the information needs analysis process -
The following three methodologies can be adopted to determine the development requirements of a management information system for any organization - Business Systems Planning (BSP) - this methodology is developed by IBM. It identifies the organization "s SI priorities and focuses on how data is kept in the system. It uses a data architecture that supports multiple applications. It defines data classs using different matrices to establish relationships between organization, process and data requirements. Critical Success Factor (CSF) - this methodology is developed by John Rockart of MIT. It identifies the main business objectives and strategies of each manager as well as those of the company. Next, it looks for the critical success factors that underpin those goals. The measure of the effectiveness of the CSF becomes an input to defineir the information system requirements. End / Means (E / M) Analysis - this methodology is developed by Wetherbe and Davis at the University of Minnesota. It determines the efficiency criteria for the outputs and the efficiency criteria for the processes generating the outputs. First, it identifies the outputs or services provided by business processes. Next, it describes the factors that make these results effective for the user. Finally, it selects the information necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of the outputs Analysis and Information System Design The analysis and design of the system follows the typical System / Software Lifecycle (SDLC) design as discussed in the previous chapter. It usually goes through the following phases - Dproblem definition Feasibility study Systems analysis System design Detailed system design Implementation Maintenance In the analysis phase, the following techniques are commonly used - Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) Logical Modeling Data Modeling Rapid Application Development (RAD) Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) Technology for Information Systems The technological requirement of an IT system information can be categorized as - Peripherals Datacenter systems - C " is the environment that provides processing, storage, networking, management and distribution of data within an enterprise. Business software - These are software systems such as ERP, SCM, gestion of human resources, etc. the needs and goals of organizations. IT Services - It is the implementation and management of quality IT services by IT service providers through people, processes and information technology. It often includes Telecommunications services Planning and execution of system tests The system must be fully tested for errors before fully operational. The test plan must include for each test - Objective Definition test entries detailed specification of the test procedure details of expected results Each subsystem and all of its components should be tested usingdifferent test procedures and data to ensure that each component is performing as expected. Testing should include users of the system to identify errors and get feedback. System Operation Before the system will operate, the following issues should be resolved - Security, backup and recovery of data; Systems control; Testing the system to ensure that it operates bug-free in all expected business situations; The hardware and software used must be able to provide the expected treatment; System capacity and expected response time must be maintained; The system should be well documented, including; A user guide for inexperienced users, Un Reference or user manual for advanced users, A system reference manual describing the system structures and architecture. Once the system is fully operational, it should be serviced throughout its life to resolve any issues or difficulties encountered during its operation and minor modifications can be made to overcome such situations. Success and failure factors MIS development projects are high risk and high return projects. The following could be considered as critical success and failure factors in the development of a GIS - It should meet a specific and well-perceived company. The management must be completely convinced, capable and willing of such a system. Ideally, there should be a boss or sponsgold for the system in the direction. All users, including managers and other employees, should be an integral part of the development, implementation, and use of the system. A working prototype of the system should be released as soon as possible, to generate user interest. There should be good support staff with the necessary technical, business and interpersonal skills. The system should be simple, easy to understand without adding a lot of complexity. It is recommended not to add an entity unless there is both a use and a user. It should be easy to use and navigate with a high response time. The implementation process must follow a specific goal and time. All users, including senior management, should bebe properly trained, so that they have a good knowledge of the content and operation of the system, and can fully use it for various management activities such as reporting, budgeting, control, planning, monitoring, etc. It should produce useful results for use by all managers. The system must be well integrated into the management planning, decision-making and monitoring processes.