Water Polo - Quick guide
Water Polo - Presentation
Water polo is a game of endurance and work team. The sport is played between two teams, each with six players and a goalkeeper. The sport is played in the water, so players must have swimming skills as well as skills like throwing, catching and passing.
The objective of sport is to score as many goals as possible in order to win the game. Players and goalkeepers use different colored caps to differentiate themselves from each other.
A Brief History of Water Polo
This sport, which demands superiority in physical form and swimming, dates back to the 19th century when its origin took place in England and Scotland. Swimming and water racing competitions dominated everywhere. Soon after gaining popularity, it was first introduced at the Olympics in 1900.
William Wilson , from Great Britain, is the creator of the rules of water polo. At the Arlington Swim Club, he was the first master bath. Arlington is the place where the first aquatic football competition was held in the late 1800s. The balls used at the time were Indian rubber.
In the past, water polo was known as water rugby . At this point, players were allowed to use their physical strength on their opponents to retrieve the ball and the goalkeeper's position was outside the playing area. He was entitled to play. Use his power by jumping on anyone who tried to place the ball on the bridge.
Sport is popular all over the world. Both women and men can play this game. However, the number of participating nations for men dominates that for women. Countries like USA, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy,the Netherlands, the Soviet Union and Yugos the lavia are popular in the men's championship category while countries like Australia, Greece and Italy are popular among the women category.
Water polo is governed by the International Swimming Federation. For two years, the United States (US) and Serbia have won the FINA water polo league in the women's and men's categories respectively. Bergamo, Italy was the last to host the FINA water polo league.
Serbia topped the medal list in the men's ranking category winning nine golds, one silver and one bronze and the same medal status with the United States in the female category.
Water polo - Playing environment
An entire 25 yard, 6 or 8 lane pool is considered the playing field. Colored lines are used to mark the playing field. game in the biggestswimming pools. The markings can be made as follows -
White - from the goal line to the point of the zone d 'exclusion.
Red - These are the lines marked from the 2 meter line to the goal line.
Yellow - Usually 5m to 2m lines are marked with this color.
The following table explains the functions of the marked zones in a swimming pool used for Water Polo -
| Marked area || Function |
| Goal line || |
| Ligne of 2 meters || |
| 5 meter line || |
A defensive team committing a fault within this limit is rewarded with Penalty and the opposing team is rewarded with a Penalty throw .
An offensive player committing a foul outside this line has the possibility of an immediate shot at the opponent 's goal.
| Mid-pool || |
Once a team has reached a goal, play resumes from that row.
Goalkeepers are not allowed to approach this line.
Water-polo - Equipment
Water polo is a sport practiced in water, so it is obvious that the instruments which are going to be used here are different from the kind of similar sport practiced on the field. Let's take a look at them.
Balloon - The ball is made of waterproof material. Its cover is so designed and textured that it gives the player extra grip. It floats on water and varies in size for men and women in the championship category.
Cap - A hood is used for protection. The purpose is to protect the ear and head. It also serves to differentiate the teams. The home team wears white colored caps while the visiting team wear dark colored caps other than white. Goalkeepers wear red caps with hearing protection.
Goalpost - The posts ofThe goal are placed on both sides of the pool. They are made to float on water using floats. They are generally made of glass reinforced polyester resin. The support frame is made of steel to give extra strength. Four candlestick sockets and a pair of brackets are required for each pair of cages.
Mouth Guard - C ' is the most important instrument for players. While diving underwater, players sometimes suffer a big impact. This will ensure the player is protected from it. A good mouthguard is one that allows easy breathing and speak clearly while playing.
Swimsuit - Swimsuits or jammers (tight trunks) are the swimsuit costume for male players. Female players wear a one-piece swimsuit. Well-fitting swimsuits are important because combination errors are common in thisset. It must be made of reinforced fabric and more resistant seams.
How to play water polo?
The game needs a mix and balance of wrestling, swimming and defensive skills. Most of the time the player has to keep their head above water. The swimming techniques used here are therefore markedly different from those of normal water swimming. The front claw stroke is more common and popular. To hit the ball, a blow of the arm is also used. Defending players use the back to push the opposing team member forward while the goalkeeper uses him to follow the ball.
The egg beater method
For swapping in water, one of the most commonly used methods is the egg beater method . In this method, the player moves their leg in a circular motion underwater to keep themselves stable. It is again fromtwo types.
- Horizontal egg beater
- Vertical egg beater
A horizontal egg beater is used to advance towards the opponent and block the ball, while the vertical egg beater is used by the player to maintain a position higher than that of the opponent.
The defensive and offensive roles are assigned to six players called fielders . A man is retained as goalkeeper . The function of the field players is to score a goal against the opposing team and prevent the same for their team. The goalkeeper prevents the ball from entering the goal post. Great force is needed to swim through the pool while passing the ball and to score the goal.
When passing and shooting the ball, the player must line his body in the direction of the ball's movement. Using an egg beater, he must keep his constant floaters for much of the temps. Use body momentum and keep in mind that one hand should only touch the ball. Now let's take a look at some of the other basic ball handling skills.
Picking up the ball
To have a good grip when picking up a ball, the fingers and thumbs must be evenly distributed over the mass of the ball. The player can pick up the ball underwater or overwater. The player often picks up the ball from the top of the water in order to shoot. Picking up the ball underwater has the sole purpose of picking up.
Moving the ball
Players can transfer the ball from one player to another but pushing the ball underwater is not allowed as it can result in turnover . In this case, the player must transfer the ball to the opposing team.
Passing the ball
There are two types of passes in water polo. They are -
If the player passes the ball without touching the water, then it is called dry pass . With optimum speed, the goal is to pass the ball from one hand to the other without picking it up from the water. Thanks to the use of the back spin , the player allows his teammates to catch the ball easily.
On the other hand, the opposing team's players use the egg beater to place them higher than the others to catch the ball. The wet pass technique is used to deliberately pose the ball on the water. For teams with a very strong hole play, this is a very strong offensive strategy.
Shooting the ball
Goals can be done with any part of the body except with a closed fist. Beating a goalkeeper from a distance is very difficult. Therefore, players always try to take a close shot by gently tapping the ball in the right direction to score a goal.
ThePlayers with good target shooting can opt for the powerful shooting techniques where they need to generate the power of the bullet by propelling it at a speed of 60 to 90 km per hour and then target towards the goal. Some players use the rebound in which the ball is shot in one direction but the rebound redirects it towards the goal. Players can also use the lob technique where they throw the ball in a long curve towards the goal post.
Water polo fouls
So far we have discussed fouls resulting from minor errors due to which the free throw is awarded to the other team . But there are other faults that result in eject or kick . These types of fouls are only awarded when the player becomes more physically aggressive. Three ejections are enough to prevent a player from playing the rest of the game.
Excess water (about 3 km for 4 laps) is requiredre in this game. Players hitting underwater can also get an ejection foul. It is common practice for the defender to make a foul to interrupt the movement of the opposing team, but in most cases, unless the foul is serious, the match continues without interruption.
Water Polo - Positions
As we know from seven players in a team, six will be fielders while one will be goalkeeper . These six fielders also have different positions to fill. Some important positions are -
- Center forward
- Center back
- Wing players
One player each is needed for the center-forward and back position while two players each are needed as wingers and pilots. Players with a global knowledge of offensive and defensive attacks on all these positions are called utility players . Let's discuss some positions in detail.
Water Polo - Offensive positions
Offensive positions include
- Wings / passers
- Point man
The point (player placed just behind 5 meters) always directs the attack and this is the Defending team defending the forward attack. The combination of the wing, pilots and toe form a perimeter player team. The 3-3 positional pattern is used where there will be two lines in which three players will be present on each line.
The role of the center-forward is to stand close to the opposing team 's goalkeeper and scoring goals. As this position is very important, a strong person is often chosen for it.
Water Polo - Defensive Positions
The switching version of the offensive position is the defensive position . In man to man position or in zono, defensive players are placed. The opposing center forward is always a double team member who keeps the front and back positions. It is very difficult to defend a backhand shot from the center-forward position because the ball goes through e These positions are explosive and all are directed towards the goal corner.
In the figure, the blues show the defensive positions against the reds (offensive positions acquired by the opposing team). Sometimes the pointer defender moves his man away in the zone to better defend the central position. This is known as M drop .
Goalkeeper in water polo
The goalkeeper is used to prevent opponents from shooting a goal. Besides blocking goals, another important duty of a goalkeeper is to inform his defenders of gaps that they may not be able to identify during the match.
The goalkeeper always starts offensive play, so he / she is called quarterback . If he can position himself within the 5 meter zone, then he may have the following privileges -
- Permission to touch the bottom of the pool.
- Can play the ball with both hands.
- He can hit the ball with a closed fist.
During a match, a goalkeeper also informs about the threat of the movements of the opposing team.
Water Polo - Rules
The team size in this game varies by level. For the senior level, the team size is seven, as decided by FINA. Here, six players will be field players and one will be the goalkeeper. In 2014, FINA reduced the number of players from 7 to 6 for the U20 and junior tournaments. This implies that there will be 5 outfielders and a goalkeeper.
FINA has decided to extend the number of six players rule to all levels after the 2016 Olympic Games. If a team commits a major foul, then the referee may order the team to play with 6 players instead of 7 for 4 minutes. If the foul is very serious like hitting a player then he / she may even be disqualified from playing at future tournaments.
Players can be replaced in the following situations -
- Before and after goals
- During time-outs
- Before the start of each quarter
- After injuries
- After ordinary fouls
Water polo caps
The rule of thumb is that players of both teams should wear caps in contrast to each other. Their cap can be contrasted with both or with one or the other of the color of the goalkeeper or it can be the same as that of the color of the ball. The guards must wear a red cap.
Water Polo - Duration and clock
Each part is
| Duration || Tournaments |
| 8 minutes || |
- Olympic Games
- FINA World Water Polo League
- Serbian, Russian, Croatian and Italian Water Polo League
- US College (university level)
| 7 minutes || |
- US College (club level)
- US High School (university level)
| 6 minutes || |
- US High School (Junior Varsity Level)
- American high school (freshman level)
- American water polon (under 14 team level)
| 9 minutes || |
The clock can be stopped in the following cases -
- At the time of a foul and restart
- Between goal and restart
No team has the power to hold the ball for more than 30 seconds. The 30-second timer is reset if the team picks up the ball after throwing it.
Water Polo - Officials
As we learn the tactics of playing water polo, we need to know the
- Match officials
- Table officials
The match officials are those who are responsible for the smooth running of the match while the table officials are there to updatethe score and report to the board of directors on the smooth running of the match. Officials and their roles are: -
L 'referee has the ultimate decision-making power of the secretary, the goal judges and timekeepers. He signals faults, goals, penalties, timeouts, the start, end and resumption of the match by hand and whistle. In lower level tournaments, one referee is sufficient while in higher tournaments two referees may be virtually present. A referee may also take the place of goal judge in the absence of the goal judge.
The role of a goal judge is to signal a goal and corner throws. He also takes care of starting the game after shifts and signals an incorrect start of play after each shift.
The role of the timekeeper is to use the 30 second timer and shot clock. Along with this, it updates the score on theelectronic scoreboard and give a signal if there is one minute left for the end of the quarter or match.
The secretary informs the water polo management of the smooth running of the match. He also acts as a mediator between the players and the management. At the same time, he organizes meetings with management as needed.
Water Polo - Cha mpions
Along with other games like football and rugby, water polo was introduced as a first sport at the Olympics in 1900. After the protest Australian women's team policy, women's water polo became a part of the Olympics in late 2000.
Here is a list of some important water polo tournaments -
- NCAA Men 's Water Polo Championship
- Olympic Games
- NCAA Women's Water Polo Championship
- USA Water Polo Hall of Fame
- Men's Champions League European Cup
- FINA Water Polo Tournaments
Now let's take a brief look at the careers of some of the water polo champions.
Dusan Aleksic is a water polo player from Canada who started his career in 2000 and in 2007 joined the junior team at the Pan American Youth Championships.
In 2010 he joined the senior national team and in 2011 he got a chance to play in the FINA Championship and the team won a Pan American Games silver medal.
Dusan played an important role in helping his team qualify for the 2013 and 2015 FINA World Championships.
Justin Boyd is a member of the Canadian team and was the youngest player at the 2008 Olympics. He started his career. career at the age of 12. In 2009, 2011 and 2013 he was part of the FINA championship.
In 2009 Canada won the silver medal and he was part of the team and also represented Canada at the Championshipsin the aquatic world in 2015.
In 2014, he was a member of the Canada Water Polo team which took sixth place in the FINA World Water Polo League.
Azevedo represented the American Water Polo team. Currently, he is the captain of the United States national water polo team.
He started his water polo career with the Italian team Bissolati Cremona and scored 63 goals with an average of 2.62 per game in 2006.
In 2007 he scored joined the US team and played at the World Championships in Melbourne where America took the silver medal. In 2012, Azevedo became the captain of the United States Men's National Water Polo Team -Unis.
Nicolas Constantin Bicari
Nicolas Constantin Bicari is a water polo player for the Canadian team. He started his career at the 2010 Pan American Junior Championship where his team won a gold medal.
At the 2009 FINA World Championships he was part ofthe senior team that took eighth place in the tournament.
At the 2011 Pan American Games, he shot 10 goals and secured the sixth position while his team won the silver medal in the tournament. At the same time, he also scored 16 goals in six matches of the FINA Championships held in 2014.
Peter Biros is a water polo player for the Hungarian team. He competed in the 2000, 2004 and 2008 Summer Olympics in which his team won the gold medal. He was also part of the 2012 Summer Olympics
He started his national team career in 1997 at an international tournament held in Spain.
After the 2008 Olympics, he received the Fair Play Award because he has a cyst in his heart but played and helped his team win the gold medal.
Alexandra Asimaki is a Greek water polo player and center-forward, her team won a gold medal in the championshipnnat du monde organized in Shanghai in 2011.
As she gave extra performance rdinaire, she became the best European and world water polo player in 2011.
In the World League Also in 2005, his team won a gold medal. At the 2010 and 2012 European Championships, his team won the silver medal.
Alkisti Avramidou is a water polo player from Greece who plays as a left winger for Olympiacos and 'Greek national team.
Avramidou was part of the Greece water polo team which won the gold medal at the 2011 World Aquatic Championships. In addition, she won a silver medal in 2010 and one in 2012 in the European Championship.
Avramidou also won two bronze medals in the FINA World League, one in 2010 and one in 2012.
Kami Craig is a American water polo player. She was part of the team when she won the silver medal at theBeijing 2008 Olympics. His team also won a gold medal at the 2012 London Olympics.
Kami was also part of the US team for the FINA World Championships in 2009. She also received the prestigious Peter J. Cutino award in 2009 and 2010.
Jessica Gaudreault is a water polo player for Canada. She started her career as a swimmer but couldn't do it so she switched to water polo.
Gaudreault was part of the international junior team that won gold medals in 2008 and 2010 at the Pan-American Championships.
In 2011 and 2013, his team secured ninth place at the World Junior Championships in FINA In the 2015 UANA Cup, Gaudreault was the goalkeeper and thanks to her performance, she qualified for the FINA World Championships.
Natalie Gol da
Natalie Golda plays for the US team and is considered the top championof water polo. She was part of the US water polo team at the 2004 Athens Olympics, where the team won a bronze medal.
His team also won a silver medal at the 2008 Beijing Olympics. His team won the gold medal at the 2003 FINA World Championships.
She was also awarded the Peter J. Cutino Award in 2005. At the same time, she was also named the United States Water Polo Hall of Fame. .