Italy is preparing for further turmoil and chaos in the labor market as aThe strictest vaccine mandate in Europe takes effect on Friday.
All workers will be required to present a pass coronavirus health workers before entering their workplace, a move that is expected to leave some industries struggling with staff shortages.
The measure, an extension of the "green pass" introduced in August, require that workers in the public and private sectors have been doubly vaccinated, whether they show proof of a negative test taken within the previous 48 hours or have recently recovered from Covid-19.
Those who break the rules face suspension without pay or a fine of up to € 1,500 (£ 1,270). Employers are exposed to amendes for not checking whether staff are complying.
Over 80% of the population over 12 has been doubly vaccinated and the majority of Italians have taken the green pass - also required for dining in restaurants, entering museums, theaters and cinemas, and for use on planes and long-distance trains - in their wake.
However, protests against workplace regulations have gathered pace in recent weeks, with a protest in Rome last weekend becoming violent as neofascist groups exploited the discontent .
The motive behind Italy's green pass is to boost vaccinations and contain infections in the hope to avoid another lock.
Alth Although there was an increase in the number of people booking vaccinations when the measure was first announced, especially among young people, an estimated 2.5 million workers have not yet received the vaccine. The majority of those who refuse vaccination are over 50.
The problem has caused
Confindustria, the Italian business lobby, strongly supports the workplace measure. However,
Port workers across Italy threatened to strike, while the trans sectorports is facing a potential shortage of 130,000 workers.
"Out of 400,000 drivers, we estimate that 30% do not have the green pass", a said Ivano Russo, the managing director of Confetra, the federation of transport and logistics. “On top of that, we fear for foreign workers, many of whom have been vaccinated with Sputnik or other vaccines not approved by European or Italian drug agencies. We therefore foresee a risk of a severe blockage in the sector.
The agricultural sector faces a similar dilemma with foreign agricultural workers, mostly from Eastern Europe, who have received the vaccine Sputnik not approved.
Meanwhile, it is estimated that 20% of Italian police forces are not vaccinated, as are between 10% and 20% of transport workers public.
Employees ofbars and restaurants also need the pass, although industry officials say vaccine uptake has been high in an area that has been badly hit by the closures.
Opponents of the Green Pass are planning further protests in the coming days. Meanwhile, CGIL, Italy 's oldest union, organized a demon against fascism in Rome on Saturday after its headquarters was ransacked by neofascists during the green pass protests last weekend.
Violence incited calls to ban the far-right party Forza Nuova and other neofascist movements.